2018-08-21T03:23:54+04:30
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/browse.php?mag_id=768&slc_lang=fa&sid=15
768-4794
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
IFC
2016
9
01
0
0
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-4794-en.pdf
768-661
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Development of a micromechanics based analytical model for predicting the elastic properties of woven fabric composites
Mahmood Mehrdad
Shokrieh
Roohallah
Ghasemi
Reza
Mosalmani
The application of woven fabrics in composites manufacturing has been increased because of their special mechanical behavior. Due to the complexity of modeling and simulation of these composites, in this research a micromechanics based analytical model has been developed to predict the elastic properties of woven fabric composites. The present model is simple to use and has a high accuracy in predicting the elastic properties of woven fabric composites. One of the most important effective factors on the modeling accuracy is utilizing a proper homogenization method. Therefore, a new homogenization method has been developed by using a laminate analogy based method for the woven fabric composites. The proposed homogenization method is a multi-scale homogenization procedure. This model divides the representative volume element to several sub-elements, in a way that the combination of the sub-elements can be considered as a laminated composite. To determine the mechanical properties of laminates, instead of using an iso-strain assumption, the assumptions of constant in-plane strains and constant out of plane stress have been considered. Then, the proposed homogenization model has been combined with a micromechanical model to propose the new micromechanical model. The applied assumptions improve the prediction of mechanical properties of woven fabrics composites, especially the out of plane elastic properties. The proposed model has been evaluated by comparing the predicted results with four available experimental results available in the literature, and the accuracy of the present model has been shown.
Woven fabric composites
analytical model
Micromechanics
homogenization
2016
9
01
1
11
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-661-en.pdf
768-9700
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Modelling of Super Cavitation on Wing using Partial nonlinear model of Boundary Element Methods
Javad
Jafari
Mahmood
Pasandide Fard
Maziar
Changizian
In this paper simulation of steady super cavitation phenomenon اhas been considered by using partial non-linear model of Boundary Element Method(BEM).The grid mesh used is fixed and the strength of dipole and source are constant on each element. With the assumption of a partial non-linear model the cavity condition is applied on the body with the assumption that cavity height is low. Thus there is not any calculation on the cavity surface, but it is restricted to only the panels on the body surface. Cavitation number is known at first and the cavity length is determined in every iteration. When the lengths obtained in two successive iterations are very close to each other it assumed to be the answer. Based on this method two Kutta conditions including Morino condition and Iterative Pressure Kutta Condition(IPKC) are studied to satisfy the wake surface condition. The application is a wing with NACA16006 section. Iterative pressure Kutta condition compared to Morino condition needs higher computational costs, but on the other hand leads to more accurate results. It has been shown that the simulation of the flow with super cavitation over wing leads to a pressure difference at the trailing edge of each strip if we use Morino’s Kutta condition. While if Iterative Pressure Kutta Condition is usedthe results are satisfactory. Comparing the results show that this method leads to very accurate predictions for the behavior of flows with cavitation, while significantly lower computational cost is required if we use the simple cavity closure condition.
Super cavity
Kutta condition
Boundary Element Method(BEM)
Wing
2016
9
01
12
22
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-9700-en.pdf
768-9935
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Investigation of Interaction between Aluminum Facing and Honeycomb Structure in Quasi-static and Impact Loading
Fatemeh
Hassanpour Roudbeneh
Gholam Hossein
Liaghat
Hadi
Sabouri
Homayoun
Hadavinia
In this paper, the interaction between aluminum facing and honeycomb structure in the quasi-static and the impact loading has been investigated experimentally. The structural elements used in this research were aluminum plate, aluminum 5052 honeycomb structure. The quasi-static penetration tests and ballistic impact experiments were performed on aluminum plate, honeycomb structure and sandwich panel by flat ended penetrator and flat ended projectile respectively. The failure mechanisms, the ballistic limit velocities, the absorbed energies due to penetration, the damage modes and some structural responses were studied. Also, the effect of interaction between aluminum facing and honeycomb structure in the quasi-static penetration and the ballistic impact response in this honeycomb sandwich panel was discussed and commented upon. Comparing energy absorption in these structures showed that the amount of absorbed energy by the sandwich panel with honeycomb core is more than the absorbed energy by the aluminum plate and honeycomb structure in the quasi-static penetration. These results indicated, when the honeycomb structure was used as the core of sandwich panel, resulted in increasing of the stiffness and the strength of the sandwich panel. The ballistic impact results showed that the absorbed energy and the ballistic limit velocity in the sandwich panel compared with the individual components was increased. Therefor the sandwich structure can be used as a suitable energy absorber.
Sandwich panel
Honeycomb structure
Quasi-static penetration
Ballistic impact
Ballistic limit velocity
2016
9
01
23
31
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-9935-en.pdf
768-1515
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Robust Nonlinear H∞ and MPC Control for Path Tracking of a Quadrotor through Estimation of System Parameters
Sadra
Borji Monfared
Ahmad
Kalhor
Mohammadali
Amiri Atashghah
In this paper, a trajectory tracking control strategy for a quadrotor flying robot is developed. At first, dynamic model is obtained by lagrange-euler approach. Then, control structure, consisting of a model-based predictive controller, has been used based on state space error to track transitional movements for reference trajectory and also robust nonlinear H∞ control is applied for stabilizing the rotational movements and reject the external disturbance. In both controllers the integral of the position error is considered, allowing the achievement of a null steady-state error when sustained disturbances are acting on the system. The external disturbances is considered as aerodynamic torques. If uncertainties increase, the designed control system will be unable to track and stabilizing perform properly and completely. So finally, in order to eliminate the effects of parameter uncertainties the recursive least squares is used for estimating mass and moment inertia parameters which are linear and it is applied to the control system. Simulation results show that by using estimation of system parameters, the proposed control system has a promising performance in terms of stabilization and position tracking even in the presence of external disturbance and parametric uncertainties.
Quadrotor
Nonlinear Robust H∞
Predictive control
Parameter estimation
Recursive Least Squares
2016
9
01
32
42
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1515-en.pdf
768-3737
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Work hardening effect in theoretical and experimental analyses of clad sheet forging process
Ali
Parvizi
Omid
Rezapour
Mohammad Ali
Safari
The slab method can predict rapidly the rolling force and torque in metal forming processes and a large amount of CPU time can be saved. Up to now, the work hardening effect has not been considered in the slab analysis for forging process of double-layer clad sheet. Evaluation of considering or eliminating the work hardening effect of material behavior in the slab analysis of three layer clad sheet forging process and investigating the subsequent effects on the process outputs are a novel subject considered in this paper. The pressure distribution as well as the forging force are investigated for both conditions. In addition, three layer clad sheet forging process is simulated entirely using ABAQUS/Explicit software. The results have showed that considering the work hardening will result into having larger stresses and forces in the process. Moreover, the results of considering the work hardening have better agreements with those from simulation. Finally, some experiments were performed on forging process of two layer Al/Cu clad sheet to evaluate the bonding quality of sheets. Therefore, forging process can be used for producing multi-layer clad sheets in various industries.
Open die forging
Clad sheet
Slab method
FEM Simulation
Work hardening
2016
9
01
43
50
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-3737-en.pdf
768-6905
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Development of higher-order stochastic spectral finite element method for uncertainty analysis of 2D continua
Pooya
Zakian
Naser
Khaji
Uncertainty inherently exists in quantity of a system’s parameters (e.g., loading or elastic modulus of a structure), and thus its effects have always been considered as an important issue for engineers. Meanwhile, numerical methods play significant role in stochastic computational mechanics, particularly for the problems without analytical solutions. In this article, spectral finite element method is utilized for stochastic spectral finite element analysis of 2D continua considering material uncertainties. Here, Lobatto family of higher order spectral elements is extended, and then influence of mesh configuration and order of interpolation functions are evaluated. Furthermore, Fredholm integral equation due to Karhunen Loève expansion is numerically solved through spectral finite element method such that different meshes and interpolation functions’ orders are also chosen for comparison and assessment of numerical solutions solved for this equation. This method needs fewer elements compared to the classic finite element method, and it is specifically useful in dynamic analysis as supplies desirable accuracy with having diagonal mass matrix. Also, these spectral elements accelerate the computation process along with Karhunen Loève and polynomial chaos expansions involving numerical solution of Fredholm integral equation. This research examines elastostatic and elastodynamic benchmark problems to demonstrate the effects of the undertaken parameters on accuracy of the stochastic analysis. Moreover, results demonstrate the effects of higher-order spectral elements on speed, accuracy and efficiency of static and dynamic analysis of continua.
Spectral finite element
Stochastic mechanics
Polynomial chaos
Karhunen Loève expansion
Lobatto interpolation function
2016
9
01
51
60
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-6905-en.pdf
768-7446
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
A novel strategy for improvement of sheet thickness distribution in incremental sheet metal forming process
Seyyed Ahmad
Eftekhari
Ali
Fazli
The incremental forming process which can be used in low quantity production of the components is a relatively new forming process for sheet metal components. One of the problems of this method is thinning and non-uniform thickness distribution of the component in radial direction. In the incremental forming process, the sheet thickness in the wall of the formed cup is reduced considerably while the thickness in the bottom of the formed cup is unchanged. This problem is hindering the wide application of the incremental forming process in the industry. In this paper, a new method is presented for the improvement of the thickness distribution in the incremental forming process. In the presented method, a new preform is added to forming stages which reducing the sheet thickness in the bottom of the formed cup, increases the minimum thickness in the wall of the formed cup and improves its thickness distribution. The incremental forming process are simulated using the software ABAQUS and verified using the experiments available in the literature. Then the proposed method is simulated which its result indicates the capability of the presented method in thickness improvement.
Single point incremental forming
multistage forming
thickness distribution
thinning
2016
9
01
61
70
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-7446-en.pdf
768-2593
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Experimental study on the drag coefficient and flow structure of an axially symmetric model and factors affecting it, in wind tunnel
Saeed
Esfandeh
Ali
Khorasani Safar
Ali Akbar
Dehghan
Ghanbar Ali
Sheikhzadeh
Mehdi
Jamali
present study is done to evaluate the effect of parameters like trip strip installation, free stream velocity, geometery of model nose (SUBBOF nose and DRDC nose) and putting up model in pitch and yaw angle, on drag coefficient. also the effect of stand geometry of an axially symmetric model in wind tunnel on wake flow structure and drag coefficient in zero and ten degree angles of attack was investigated. choosing best distance behind the model for data acquisition in order to calculate drag coefficient under consideration of turbulence effects in one dimension is the other item to investigate in present study. all experiments have been done in an open circuit wind tunnel at university of Yazd and data acquisitions has been done with a one dimensional hot wire. according to calculations installation of trip strip enhanced drag coefficient in all cases. also drag coefficient decreased with increasing free stream velocity. putting up the model in pitch and yaw angle of attack increased drag coefficient. between two nose shapes that examined, the SUBBOF nose shape choosed as suitable nose. a stand with NACA0012-64 geometry and Rod stand were selected as the most appropriate stands for zero and 10 degree angles of attack.
axially symmetric model
Wake
Wind tunnel
hot wire
Drag coefficient
2016
9
01
71
82
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-2593-en.pdf
768-8006
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Field study of gap dimensions around conventional doors and windows in Iran and relations for calculating air infiltration of them
Danial
Hakimi Rad
Mehdi
Maerefat
Behruz
MohammadKari
Hazhar
Rasouli
Study air infiltration into the building in several ways such as energy, air quality, thermal comfort and pollution entering in the building is very important. In this context, many studies have been conducted in different countries. In our country due to the use of steel doors and windows, do independent research on the gap size and air infiltration is necessary .In this study, by practical view and in order to localize results, based on a field study, the actual dimensions of the gaps around conventional doors and windows in Iran is measured. The results of these measurements are used to simulate gaps, then with experimental study, air infiltration rate of this gaps is calculated at different pressures. In present study, after investigating the effect of different aspects of gaps on air infiltration rate, two common equations, power law and quadratic equation, in order to fitting data were compared. Results show that power law equation can adapt better to the experimental data. Coefficients of the power law equation to estimate the air infiltration rate through the gaps was presented. By analysis of the results, due to the proximity factor of the pressure difference to the number 0.5 in most of the results, it was concluded that the Bernoulli equation can be used to predict the air infiltration rate through the gaps. This equation is better compliance with laws and physical principles. Discharge coefficient of the Bernoulli equation for gaps with different dimensions are calculated.
Air infiltration
Gaps around doors and windows
pressure difference
Experimental study
2016
9
01
83
92
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-8006-en.pdf
768-11833
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Upgrading the CNC system of hexapod machine tool by adding the five axis tool radius compensation
Hossein
Shahmohammadi Dermani
Mohammad Javad
Nategh
This paper is seeking to add a CNC G-code to hexapod CNC system. The mentioned G-code is five axis tool radius compensation. Once the tool radius is changed, especially in the case of tool size changing with tool wear in machining, a new NC program has to be recreated. Five axis tool radius compensation correct cutter path automatically. This G-code contains all the main parts of a standard code such as: interpreter, interpolator and inverse kinematics unit. The interpreter unit extracts the position and orientation from the received code and sends it to the interpolation and kinematics units to correct the errors and achieve the desired six pods lengths. In the tool radius compensation algorithm, the unique vector of the movement direction of the tool tip and the normal vector of the machining surface have been used to calculate the direction of the tool radius compensation. The offset path is calculated by offsetting the tool path along the direction of the offset vector. Accuracy of the proposed method tested with a number of experiments. The experimental results confirmed the accuracy of the proposed methods.
CNC
Five Axis Tool Radius Compensation
Hexapod
Machine Tool
2016
9
01
93
98
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-11833-en.pdf
768-7383
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Buckling and flutter analyses of composite sandwich panels under supersonic flow
Mostafa
Livani
Keramt
Malekzadeh Fard
Saeed
Shokrollahi
This study dealt with the flutter and biaxial buckling of composite sandwich panels based on a higher order theory. The formulation was based on an enhanced higher order sandwich panel theory that the vertical displacement component of the face sheets were assumed as quadratic one while a cubic pattern was used for the in-plane displacement components of the face sheets and the all displacement components of the core. The transverse normal stress in the face sheets and the in-plane stresses in the core were considered. For the first time, the continuity conditions of the displacements, transverse shear and normal stress at the layer interfaces, as well as the conditions of zero transverse shear stresses on the upper and lower surfaces of the sandwich panel are simultaneously satisfied. The aerodynamic loading was obtained by the first-order piston theory. The equations of motion and boundary conditions were derived via the Hamilton principle. Moreover, effects of some important parameters like lay-up of the face sheets, length to width ratio, length to panel thickness ratio, thickness ratio of the face sheets to panel, fiber angle, elastic modulus ratio and thickness ratio of the face sheets on the stability boundaries were investigated. The results were validated by those published in the literature. The results revealed that by increasing length to width ratio, length to panel thickness ratio and elastic modulus ratio of the face sheets, the stability boundaries were decreased and the largest nondimensional buckling load was occurred at the angle ply sandwich panel.
Sandwich panel
High order theory
Flutter
Biaxial buckling
2016
9
01
99
110
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-7383-en.pdf
768-3259
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Study of water mist system for pre-cooling the entering air of an air-cooled chiller condenser
Ghassem
Heidarinejad
Mohammad Reza
Asadi Moghaddam
Hadi
Pasdar Shahri
A practical method for improving the COP of an air-cooled chiller is pre-cooling the entering air of its condenser via a water mist system. This article studies a water mist system with hollow-cone spray nozzles and investigates the effects of water flow rate, water droplet diameter and the number of spray nozzles on system performance. Simulations were run by software FLUENT applying Eulerian-Lagrangian method. Solution grid independency was obtained and it was validated with experimental data. According to the results, in a constant air flow rate of 8.3 (kg/s), with increasing the water flow rate from 0.05 to 0.4 (kg/s), percent increase of COP increases from 3 to about 14, but the percentage of evaporated water decreases from 12.13 to 7.62 (however the value of evaporated water increases). Besides, decreasing the water droplets’ diameter from 200 to 50 micrometer, results in percent increase of COP from 4 to 24. Due to less water evaporation in higher flow rates, the number of spray nozzles was raised in a constant total flow rate that according to the results, increasing the number of nozzles improves the system performance. Also with other simulations it was observed that increasing the number of nozzles is more effective in higher flow rates and less drop diameters. Finally by the case study, it was demonstrated using sufficient number of nozzles, it is possible to achieve higher COPs in lower flow rates and therefore in addition to energy consumption decline, the water consumption could be lowered.
COP
Air-Cooled Chiller
Water mist system
Hollow-Cone Nozzle
Eulerian-Lagrangian method
2016
9
01
111
120
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-3259-en.pdf
768-4717
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Experimental and numerical investigation of the length ratio and angle of attack effects on dynamic behavior of two plates perpendicular to the cylinder
Hassan
Isvand
Ali
Salmaninezhad
Ahmad
Sharafi
In this study, experimental and analytical unsteady flow around a cylinder model with rotational degrees of freedom is discussed. Experimental studies at different speeds and angles of attack for two cylinder models with different length ratios have been done. Meanwhile the analyses of numerical technique known as vortex panel method have been used. Analytical and experimental results show that the rotational and vibrational motion and a combination of these behaviors occur. These types of behaviors depend on ratio of length plates to cylinder radius, primary object angle of attack and free stream velocity. At different speeds and at all angles of attack for a length of less than 1, the model has vibrational Motion around a specific angle. This angle for cylinder with two plates is 90 degrees. Generally, the model tends to vibrational motion at low angles of attack with increasing length ratio and free stream velocity occurs and by increasing the Primary angle of attack is the desire to vibration motion around a specific angle. Also, in free stream velocity 10(□(m/sec)) and Higher, for length ratio 4, the model had a steady rotational motion. In addition, angular velocity models and Strouhal number on rotational motion is calculated. The results show that Strouhal Number is a fixed amount, by increasing the Reynolds Number.
Unsteady flow
Vortex Panel Method
Rotational and Vibrational motion
Forced Vibration
Wind Tunnel Tests
2016
9
01
121
132
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-4717-en.pdf
768-11115
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Numerical study of aerodynamic drag reduction of blunt nose with hybrid of spike and axial and lateral jet injection
Mohammad
Mumivand
Hasan
Mohammadkhani
One of the mainchallenges existing in the field of missile aerodynamics is how to reduce the aerodynamic drag of aerospace vehicles through different mechanisms. Thus far, many investigations have been performed to determine the performance and influence of various parameters on the effectiveness of these mechanisms. The challenge particularly is more pronounced in missiles with a blunt nose. The aim of this study is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of such missiles using hybrid employment of mounted spike at the stagnation point of the nose in addition to jet injection at different positions on the spike. To this aim, spike and jet injection configurations are extracted from the literature. Jet injection is considered in the sonic regime and perpendicular to the surface of spike. All analyses are performed using Fluent software along with Navier-Stokes equations for compressible and three-dimensional flow in both steady and unsteady states considering free stream at a Mach number of 1.89 and different angles of attach. Since the numerical simulation of these models requires high processing speed and memory, parallel processing system is employed. Additionally, structure grid and κ-ω -SST turbulence models are utilized. Results indicated that a significant drop in the drag is achieved using the hybrid utilization of jet injection and spike.
Aerodynamic Drag reduction
Blunt nose
Numerical analysis
Jet injection
Spike
2016
9
01
133
142
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-11115-en.pdf
768-7474
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Vibration analysis of FML cylindrical shell optimized according to maximum natural frequency under various boundary conditions
Ali
Nazari
Keramt
Malekzadeh Fard
Milad
Majidian
In this paper optimized the arrangement of the fiber metal laminate for cylindrical shells to achieve the maximum natural frequencies. In order to maximize the FML shell natural frequencies the sequence of the composite –metal layers and fiber orientation are changed frequently and for each case, the sample natural frequency is calculated. Finally FML shell with maximum natural frequencies is found. Hamilton‘s principle and energy method is used to define the equation of motion and First order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is utilized for vibration analysis in the shell’s equilibrium equation .In order to solve free vibration problem the double Fourier series is used to obtained the eigenvalue problem. For this purpose, through a MATLAB program linked to the finite element software of ABAQUS .different shells with various layer sequence and fiber orientation are created and studied from optimization aspect. This comprehensive program is able to analyses the FML shells with various arrangements of composite –metal layers, fiber orientation and boundary condition. The simply-simply and clamp-clamp boundary conditions are applied on edges. The applicable fiber orientations are 0,30,60,90 degrees.
Vibration
layer sequence
layer orientation
fiber metal laminate shell
2016
9
01
143
152
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-7474-en.pdf
768-12234
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
A study on the thermophysical properties of water/ethylene glycol based nanofluids using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics and computational fluid dynamics methods
Mir-Shahabeddin
Izadkhah
Hamid
Erfan-Niya
Hamed
Moradkhani
Nanofluids are engineered by suspending nanoparticles with average sizes below 100 nm in traditional. The ever increasing of thermal loads in such applications requires advanced operational fluid characteristics, for example, high thermal conductivity dielectric oils in transformers and car radiators. These fluids require high thermal conduction, as long as electrical insulation. In the present work the thermophysical and rheological properties of the nanofluids such as thermal conductivity, viscosity and density are obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. These results served as initial data for computational fluid dynamics simulations to calculate heat transfer coefficient. The results show that, adding titanium oxide nanosheet in the base fluid enhanced the thermal conductivity and increased the viscosity and density of the base fluid. The theoretical calculations are confirmed the molecular dynamics simulation results and the simulation methods accuracy. The computational fluid dynamics results show that increasing the amount of titanium oxide nanosheet in the base fluid increases the heat transfer coefficient and increasing ethylene glycol ratio in base fluid leads to lower heat transfer coefficient. Also non-equilibirium molecular dynamics method can use as a effective and accurate method for nanofluids investigation. The coding which used to obtaine the thermal conductivity of nanofluid is a novel and modified type of non-equlibiruim molecular dynamics method. With using this coding the eror persentages of simulations is decreases. The other advantage of this code is reducing the simulation process, becous the molecular dynamics simulations need a long time for processing.
nanofluid
titanium oxide
non-equilibrium molecular dynamics
Computational Fluid Dynamics
thermophysical properties
2016
9
01
153
162
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-12234-en.pdf
768-2686
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Investigation on semi-implicit integration method based on exponential map for von-Mises plasticity model with linear mixed hardening
Nader
Haji Aghajanpour
Mehrzad
Sharifian
In the nonlinear elastoplastic finite element analysis, the stresses must be updated at each Gauss point of the elements in each iteration of each load increment by a stress-updating process. The stress-updating process is performed by integrating of the constitutive equations in plasticity. It should be noted that the accuracy of the integrating the constitutive equations highly affects the accuracy of the final results of the structural analysis. In this study, the von-Mises plasticity model along with the isotropic and kinematic hardening mechanisms is considered in the small strain realm. The constitutive equations are converted to a nonlinear equation system in an augmented stress space. The aforementioned nonlinear equation system is solved by an semi implicit technique. The precision of the solution is depended to the radius of the yield surface which is used in the process of the solution. Therefore, the relations are derived so that one can pick up the yield surface radius from each arbitrary part of plasticity step. Finally, to determine the best time of loading step for calculating the radius of the yield surface, the a broad range of numerical tests is performed.
Integration
exponential map
von-Mises plasticity
linear hardening
2016
9
01
163
169
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-2686-en.pdf
768-10380
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Experimental Study of Effective Parameters on Production and Mechanical Properties of Al- brass Bimetal Composite
Morteza
Gholami
Mehdi
Divandari
Mohammad Taghi
Salehi
In this study, aluminum- brass bimetal composite was produced by centrifugal casting process. Four preheat temperatures (100, 200, 300, and 400°C), three rotational speeds (800, 1600, and 2000 rotation-per-minute) and two volume ratios (1.5 and 2.5) are variables which have been investigated. Optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) were used for microstructure observations and phase characterization. Mechanical tests, based on Chalmers model, and fracture studies were performed on some specimens. According to the results, interface contains three discrete zones. Zone 1 includes diffusional layers (Al3Cu5Zn4- Al3Cu3Zn), zone 2 contains Al3Cu precipitates distributed in Al11Zn matrix, and at last zone 3 includes anomalous eutectic microstructure (α-Al/Al3Cu). Pressure test results showed that brittleness is associated with interface thickening so that bond strength is weakened. Interface fracture surface contains two fracture modes, brittle and ductile. Brittle fracture seems to be related to Al3Cu precipitates and ductile fractures to α-Al/Al3Cu anomalous eutectic microstructure.
Bimetal composite
Chalmers Test
Aluminum
Brass
Fracture surface
2016
9
01
170
178
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-10380-en.pdf
768-10822
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Modeling mutual effects of evaporation, thermal sensation and concentration of chlorine contaminant in an indoor swimming pool
Seyed Ali Reza
Zolfaghari
Seyed Mohammad
Hoshmand
Ali
Foadaddini
Peyman
Ebrahimi Naghani
Due to high humidity, high air temperature and hazardous compounds including chlorine indoor swimming pools are called as ‎unhealthy environment. Therefore, the pollutants’ concentration, relative humidity and thermal comfort conditions must be ‎simultaneously considered in designing the air conditioning systems of indoor swimming pools. In this study, a new approach has been ‎presented for concurrent modeling of water evaporation mechanism, chlorine concentration level, occupants’ thermal sensation and ‎temperature and velocity fields in a championship-size indoor swimming pool. In this regard, a new algorithm has been developed in ‎order to apply adaptive boundary conditions at water-air interface in the pool. In the mentioned pool, the air enters the environment ‎through a linear ceiling diffuser at temperature of 35°C, relative humidity of 30% and air exchange rate of 4 times per hour. The results ‎show that the distribution of temperature, relative humidity and concentration of chlorine contaminant are significantly depending on the ‎height from the water surface. So, the volumetric average of relative humidity from the floor to 0.5m height is about 62%; while the ‎volumetric average of relative humidity in the occupied zone is about 50%. Moreover, results indicate that in the distance of floor to 0.5m ‎height, the mean value of chlorine’s concentration is about 60% larger than its mean value in the occupied zone. Also, the temperature ‎field and distribution of thermal comfort index are significantly dependent to the height.‎
Air conditioning
indoor swimming pool
Indoor Air Quality
Thermal Comfort
evaporation modeling
2016
9
01
179
188
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-10822-en.pdf
768-3893
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Conceptual design algorithm with statistical processing approach based on Sensitivity analysis of velocity relative to effective external forces
Niusha
Ahmadzadeh
Mehran
Mirshams
Hasan
Naseh
The major purpose of this paper is to illustarte of statistical design accuracy using trajectory simulation for launch vehicles design in conceptual design phase and also sensitivity analysis of velocity relative to effective external forces. Considering the advantages of statistical design to prevent the time and cost losses, system specification of sample launch vehicle calculated based on statistical data of the studied population. Then, by solving the equations of motion, design parameters are calculated in such a way that difference of the final velocity of trajectory simulation and needed orbital speed is less than 1 percent. Studied launch vehicles are two-stage liquid propellant vehicles, with Portability 2.5-3.5 tons mass to the low earth orbit. To validate, curves of speed, altitude and angle of path of launch vehicle designed with statistical method, compared with curves of Tsiklon launch vehicle, therefore correct operation the mission and accuracy of the statistical design algorithm is proved. By comparing ideal speed and speed of simulation, speed changes of any effective force obtained. Eventually speed loss factor at each stage and sensitive percent of each stage speed relative to the force, for both launch vehicles, statistical design and tsiklon, is analyzed.
Conceptual Design
Statistical analysis
Trajectory Simulation
Liquid Launch Vehicles
Statistical Design Algorithm
2016
9
01
189
199
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-3893-en.pdf
768-216
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Numerical analysis of vane and cooling channels roughness effect on temperature distribution of gas turbine vane
Mahmood
Baniasadipoor
Mohammad Reza
Aligoodarz
Roughness of vanes’ outer surface and that of cooling channels’ inner surface have considerable impact on temperature distribution. Using a rougher surface leads to increased turbulence in near-surface flows and increases the rate of heat transfer. In this study, vane of a C3X turbine cooled via 10 cooling channels was simulated -three-dimensionally- by ANSYS-CFX software based on SST turbulence model, and then the effects of roughness of said surfaces were examined. The results showed that increasing the roughness of the blade’s outer surface, which absorbs the heat of the hot fluid, to values below the threshold of fully rough regime ( Reks < 70 ) makes no significant impact on vane’s surface temperature distribution; but increasing the roughness to values higher than this threshold leads to 8% increase in surface temperature. This indicates that outer surface of the blade should always exhibit a transitionally rough regime. Opposite to the outer surface, increasing the roughness of cooling channels’ inner surface, which transfers the heat to the cooling fluid, found to be the very beneficial, as even a slight increase in the roughness of this surface (within the domain of transitionally rough) decreases the blade’s surface temperature by up to 8%, and improves the hydraulic-thermal performance factor by about 250%.
Heat Transfer
Gas Turbine
Blade roughness
Cooling channel
2016
9
01
200
206
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-216-en.pdf
768-11324
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Minimization of the emission of pollutants along with maximization of radiation from an air-staged natural gas flame
Mina
Rasouli
Javad
Mahmoudimehr
Air staging is defined as the supply of inadequate air from the primary stage to the reaction zone, and the completion of the air supply through the next stage or stages. This study is concerned with the optimization of the air staging system of a burner with two air inlets and one fuel (natural gas) inlet with the help of numerical modeling. The equivalence ratio of the primary air (with the assumption of a fixed total air mass flow rate), and the distance between the two air inlets constitute the design variables of the problem. In the previous research works, the air staging technology has been mainly employed as a method to reduce the emission of NO. However, in the current study, in addition to the emission of NO, the emissions of CO and soot, and radiative heat transfer from the flame are considered as the objective functions. The results show that increasing the level of air staging (or the equivalence ratio of the primary air) has contradictory effects on the objective functions so that, as positive influences, it increases the radiative heat transfer from the flame and decreases the emission of NO, and as negative effects, it increases the emission of both CO and soot. The results also indicate that when all the previously mentioned objectives are considered simultaneously, the optimal case, which is selected based on the Pareto front concept, is the case in which the primary air is about 20% of the theoretical air.
Natural gas flame
air-staging
multi-objective optimization
pollutants
Radiation
2016
9
01
207
218
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-11324-en.pdf
768-3020
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Design and instrumentation of low velocity drop-weight impact testing machine for estimation of energy absorption capacity in aluminum based composite foam
Hossein
Farahat
Seyed Yousef
Ahmadi-Brooghani
In this paper, the energy absorption capacity of A356 aluminum foam reinforced by SiC particles under impact loading was studied. The foam was manufactured by direct foaming of melts with blowing agent CaCO3. The drop-weight impact testing machine was designed and fabricated. The dynamic load-cell circuit was designed and mounted on the impactor. The impact test was carried out using a hemispherical indenter with a velocity of 6.70 m/s on the foam specimens, and the load-time history data was obtained. The results were compared with the results reported by a piezoelectric force sensor and validated. The obtained impact response of A356/SiCp composite foam is stable, which represents a suitable design of the machine and its reliable output. This is emphasized by comparison of material behavior with the results of other researchers. The response includes three stages: an initial linear behavior, a plateau of load and failure of the foam. In plateau region, the plastic deformations can be tolerated by the foam at nearly constant load. The end of plateau region and beginning of the failure region occur at the moment when the rate of energy absorbed by the foam is decreasing. The values of plateau load and absorbed energy estimated from load-cell are 1.62 kN and 22.04 J respectively, which has a relative error of 1.8% and 7.7% in comparison with piezoelectric sensor. The value and percent of absorbed energy were obtained as 6.07 J, 6.58 J, 9.39 J and 27.5%, 29.9%, 42.6% for elastic, plateau and failure regions respectively.
A356/SiCp composite foam
Drop-weight impact test
Load-cell circuit
energy absorption
2016
9
01
219
228
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-3020-en.pdf
768-1587
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Application of Lattice Boltzmann Method for Simulating MGD in a Microchannel under Magnetic Field Effects.
Ahmad Reza
Rahmati
Hossein
Khorasanizadeh
Mohammad Reza
Arbyar Mohammadi
In this paper, magnetogasdynamics with outlet Knudsen of 0.2 is studied in a pressure-driven microchannel. By using a developed code, the effects of changing magnetic field parameters including power and length with implementation of slip velocity at the walls has been simulated numerically. The geometry is a two dimensional planar channel having a constant width through all. The flow is assumed to be laminar and steady in time. In order to analyze the variation of velocity, pressure, Lorentz force and induction magnetic field, the governing equations for flow and magnetic fields have been solved simultaneously using the lattice Boltzmann. No assumption of being constant for parameters like Knudsen and volumetric forces are made. Another feature of this research is to improve the quantity of results which is a major problem in this method and many studies have been done in this area. This study represents the results tending to that of analytical relations by using a second order accuracy for calculation of slip velocity and correction of pressure deviation curve in compare with the past studies if a proper relaxation time is determined. The simulation results show a change in Fx profile to M if the length of external magnetic field length reduces to 40% of the whole. Removing applied magnetic field from both ends of the channel will increase pressure gradient at the intermediate part and displaces the section at which the maximum pressure deviation occurs. Slip velocity and centerline velocity behave different for the reduced magnetic field length.
Lattice Boltzmann Method
Microchannel
MGD
Lorentz Force
Slip Velocity
2016
9
01
229
240
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1587-en.pdf
768-5362
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Experimental study of isotropic circular plates\' respond to underwater explosive loading, created by the conic shock tube
Mehran
Heshmati
Jamal
Zamani
Ali
Mozaffari
Today, in order to reduce the cost and increase the safety, utilizing tests devices like conic shock tube has been popularized to investigate the explosion under-water phenomenon and its impact on constructions. A shock tube is designed, manufactured and utilized in the mechanic of explosion laboratory of mechanic faculty of K.N. Toosi University of Technology to study the effect of isotropic metal plates’ material in this research. The source which creates the shock in the utilized shock tube is the explosive material and the positive point is that in such a tube a high pressure can be produced with a tiny explosive charge. In order to investigate the effect of the material and the geometry of the utilized metal plate, three material is considered with two different thicknesses in the experimental tests. The behavior of the plate can be measured when the amount of the pressure produced by the explosive charge and the amount of plate’s transformation is specified. From the results of the experimental tests, in order to give a semi experimental relation, the behavior of the plate under the explosion load with the water interface is utilized. At the end, with the combination of experimental and theoretical results, the effect of material and thickness change are studied separately and with the increase in the weight parameter of the load, equations are given to predict the transformation of the metal plates.
Shock Tube
Under Water Explosion
Shock Wave
Deformation of metal sheet
2016
9
01
241
250
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-5362-en.pdf
768-11288
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Dynamic behavior analysis of FG circular and annular plates with stepped variations of thickness under various load
Mohammad
Molla-Alipour
In this study, dynamic bending of FG circular and annular plates with stepped thickness variations is examined. System of governing differential equations are derived based on the first order shear deformation theory and solved by using a semi-analytical method based on the power series and the fourth-order Runge–Kutta methods. On the basis of presented solution procedure, dynamic behavior may be obtained for the plates under various dynamic loads such as stepped, stepped pulse, triangular pulse and harmonic loads which can be imposed on the arbitrary parts of plates. Also, transverse asymmetric plates with various stepped segments with various boundary conditions may be analyzed. For derivation of system of governing differential equations, Stepped annular plates are divided into multiple constant thickness annular segments and stepped circular plates are divided into multiple annular and one circular segments with constant thickness. Governing equations are written for each segment, individually. Then, continuity conditions of displacements and stresses are imposed between various segments. Comparisons made with results of a numerical finite element code (ABAQUS software) on the basis of the three dimensional theory of elasticity reveal that the obtained results by using the proposed solution procedure have very good accuracy for various stepped plates under various dynamic loads.
Dynamic Behaviour
Semi-analytical Solution
Bending
Stepped plate
2016
9
01
251
260
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-11288-en.pdf
768-3756
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Production Method and Analysis of the Acoustic and Mechanical Properties of Soft Polyurethane Foam Reinforced by Nano-alumina Particles
Hamid
Yazdanpanah
Anoshirvan
Farshidianfar
Ali
Ahmadpour
Ali
Faezian
Farid
Mokhtari
Reduction of unwanted noises is an important issue in the current societies regarding their potential negative impact on the mental and physical health of the peoples. Researchers are trying to find a new method to reduce the damage of this unwanted sound. Accordingly, the use of sound absorbing materials with appropriate acoustic properties has increased in the recent years. In this article, the production of polyurethane foam explained first and sound absorption coefficient of pure PUF has been measured. In order to improve the mechanical and acoustical properties of polyurethane foam, various quantities of Nano-Alumina powder is added to the structure of the foam. The effects of this additive material on the acoustic and mechanical properties of the foam are then measured. In this work, for the first time, the mechanical, physical and acoustical properties of the polyurethane foam improved by Nano-Alumina are studied. Finally, the change of the sound absorption coefficient of the produced composite material is analyzed based on the mechanical and physical experimental results. The sound absorption coefficient of this foam is then measured using two microphone method with Impedance tubes.
Polyurethane foam
Nano-Alumina
Sound absorption coefficient
Impedance tube
2016
9
01
261
266
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-3756-en.pdf
768-1185
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Experimental investigation of air injection effects on rotating stall alleviation in an axial compressor
Reza
Taghavi
Mohammad Hossein
Ababaf Behbahani
Ali
Khoshnejad
Rotating stall alleviation in an axial compressor with deployment of air injection at its rotor blade row tip region has been experimentally investigated. Twelve air injectors had been mounted evenly spaced around the compressor casing upstream the rotor blade row. Initially, improvement of the compressor overall performance has been examined through air injection, especially at stall point condition. Instantaneous flow velocities at various radial and circumferential positions were measured simultaneously utilizing hot wire anemometry. These unsteady results, obtained from these latter measurements together with signal frequency analyses, provided to describe the stall inception process and consequent flow induced fluctuations and also alleviation process of stall during the air injection. Results show that a small amount of air injection at the rotor blade tip region can affect the total pressure rise and specifically can increase the compressor stall margin efficiently. Air injection of less than 1% of the compressor main flow rate through the injectors has caused the stall margin to be improved by 9%. Air injection at the blade row tip has caused its beneficial effects to extend throughout the blade whole span, especially while working at the near stall conditions.
Axial Compressor
Stall inception
Tip injection
Stall margin
2016
9
01
267
274
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1185-en.pdf
768-1789
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Effect of free stream Mach number on a mixed compression inlet performance
Abbas
Ebrahimi
Majid
Zare Chavoshi
Inlet performance is an important field in aerodynamic design of aerial vehicle engines. This study has been focused on numerical investigation of Mach number effects on a supersonic axisymmetric mixed compression inlet performance. For this purpose, a density based finite volume CFD code has been developed. A structured multi-block grid and an explicit time discretization of Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations have been used. Furthermore, Roe’s approximated Riemann solver has been utilized for computing inviscid flux vectors. Also, the monotone upstream centered schemes for conservation laws (MUSCL) extrapolation with Van Albada limiter has been used to obtain second order accuracy. In addition, Spalart-Allmaras one-equation turbulence model has been used to close the governing equations. The code is validated in three test cases by comparing numerical results against experimental data. Finally, the code has been utilized for numerically simulation of a specific supersonic mixed compression inlet. The effects of free stream Mach number on performance parameters, including mass flow ratio (MFR), drag coefficient, total pressure recovery (TPR), and flow distortion (FD) have been discussed and investigated. Results show that Mach number increase, leads to TPR and drag coefficient decrease; however, MFR and FD increase. Also, FD variations with respect to other performance parameters are significant, such that Mach number increase from 1.8 to 2.2 leads to more than 100% FD increment while MFR has been increase less than 10%. By using this code, it will be possible to design, parametric study, and geometrical optimization of axisymmetric supersonic inlet.
Mixed Compression Inlet
Supersonic Axisymmetric Flow
Multi-block Grid
Spalart-Allmaras Turbulent Model
Roe Flux Difference Splitting Method
2016
9
01
275
284
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1789-en.pdf
768-6160
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Offering a method for reducing pollution and criterion for evaluation of ventilation flow in multilevel enclosed parking lots
Javad
Amnian
Mehdi
Maerefat
Ghasem
Heidarinejad
The management of air quality in enclosed parking lots has many challenges such as increasing pollution concentration and pollution movement between floors. In this article, the complete calculation of ventilation system in multilevel parking lots is presented and the effect of supply and exhaust vents height on pollution concentration and movement is investigated by using numerical simulation. Also a new criterion for recognition of flow pattern is presented. In the numerical simulation, the conservation equations are solved by using openFoam. For validating the numerical simulation, the results are compared with available experimental results. The comparison of results is showed good accuracy of numerical simulation. After that, the common multilevel parking lots are introduced and the effect of supply and exhaust vent heights on the amount of pollution in these parking lots are investigated. The results showed that, if the supply vents are installed on the non-dimensional heights of about 0.55 and exhaust vents are installed on the non-dimensional heights of about 0.55 to 0.7, the best ventilation flow pattern in the multilevel parking lots is obtained. Furthermore, by using the novel method of this paper, the ideal bulk flow velocity for development of piston flow in parking lot is obtained and the flow pattern is tend to piston flow by optimizing the supply and exhaust vent heights.
Pollution dispersion
Numerical simulation
air inlet position
exhausts position
jet fan
2016
9
01
285
296
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-6160-en.pdf
768-990
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Numerical simulation of two-phase non-Newtonian polymer flooding in porous media to enhance oil recovery
Majid
Siavashi
Behrooz
zare Vamerzani
In this paper, the non-Newtonian immiscible two-phase polymer flow in a petroleum reservoir has been investigated numerically. The fluid flow in a porous medium is simulated as a compressible flow. The Carreau-Yasuda constitutive equation is employed as the model of non-Newtonian fluid. The IMPES method is used for numerical simulation, in which the pressure equation is discretized and solved by an implicit approach and the saturation equation is solved by an explicit method. Results reveal that zero-shear rate viscosity has a high impact on the sweep efficiency of the reservoir and also controls the channeling and viscous fingering effects. In addition increasing the viscosity of non-Newtonian fluid improves cumulative oil production and diminishes the viscous fingering phenomenon caused by injected fluid. The relaxation time of Carreau-Yasuda fluid, which is the elastic characteristic of the non-Newtonian fluid, for low permeability values cannot influence flow characteristics inside the reservoir, however for higher permeability values its effect becomes more sensible. Increasing the injection rates leads to the increase of fluid production, while the injection rate has an optimum range to reach the optimum oil production. In addition, the effect of variation of the injected fluid properties on the polymer breakthrough time has been investigated and results presented.
two-phase flow
non-Newtonian fluid
Carreau-Yasuda model
Polymer
enhanced oil recovery
Porous Media
2016
9
01
297
307
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-990-en.pdf
768-3429
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Simulation of combined steam and organic rankine cycle from energy and exergoeconomic point of view with exhaust gas source
Kourosh
Javaherdeh
Azam
Alizadeh
Mohammad
Zoghi
In this study, at first the combined steam and organic Rankine cycles, have been stimulated with high-temperature wasted hot gases recovery, from the energy and exergoeconomic points of view. In the configuration of the combined cycles, the high-temperature wasted gases acts as the source of steam cycle evaporator, then the decreased temperature exhaust gas of the steam cycle evaporator, is used as the low temperature source of organic cycle evaporator. Afterward the effects of changing different parameters such as temperature of the evaporator and condenser of steam cycle and pinch temperature difference, on the amount of total output work, total irreversibility, energy efficiency, exergy efficiency and exergoeconomic variables have been checked. The results in base state show that, energy and exergy efficiency of combined cycles are 0.2782 and 0.5279 respectively and the amount of output work and total irreversibility are 71401kW and 43616kW respectively. Total exergoeconomic factor for the combined cycles is 12.47 percent, which represents a high exergy destruction in components and recommends raising the initial cost of components in order to improve the performance of system. The evaporator, turbine and condenser of steam cycle, are the components that should be considered from the perspective of the exergoeconomic, because they contains the maximum amount of total initial costs and the cost of exergy destruction.
Combined steam and organic Rankine cycles
Exergy
Exergoeconomic
Parametric analysis
2016
9
01
308
316
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-3429-en.pdf
768-4046
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Strategic design of mechanical systems in the non-cooperative environment using the game theory
Bahman
Ahmadi
Nader
Nariman-zadeh
Ali
Jamali
The design of complex mechanical systems usually involves multiple mutually coupled disciplines and competing objectives which requires complicated and time-consuming interactive analysis during the design process. Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) is a systematic design methodology to improve the design efficiency of complex mechanical systems specifically in non-cooperative design environments. In the other hand game theory is set of mathematical constructs that study the interaction between multiple intelligent rational decision makers. In this paper, a new game theoretic approach is proposed and applied for multi-objective MDO problems in non-cooperative design environments, considering the intrinsic similarity between the MDO and game theory. In this way, genetic programming is used as a surrogate to construct the approximate rational reaction sets (RRS) of players. Furthermore, in order to find the intersection of RRS of players in Nash game models, an objective function is proposed which should be minimized. The effectiveness of the proposed framework is demonstrated by the design of three cases study in the field of engineering design optimization in non-cooperative environment. The results show that the presented approach is able to approximate complicated RRS, in addition has the ability to find multiple Nash solutions when the Nash solution is not a singleton and generally found solutions better than those reported in the literature.
Mechanical design
Optimization
Genetic programming
game theory
decision making
2016
9
01
317
326
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-4046-en.pdf
768-10872
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Design, Manufacturing, Kinematic Analysis of a Kind of a 3-DOF Translational Parallel Manipulator
Mahmood
Mazare
Mostafa
Taghizadeh
Mohammad Rasool
Najafi
Parallel manipulators are mechanisms with closed kinematic chains which have been developed in different forms, but these manipulators have several drawbacks such as small workspace, existence of singular points in their workspace, and complex kinematics and dynamics equations that lead to increase of difficulty in their control. In spite of this, this mechanism has been being conventionally used in many different industrial applications such as machining, motion simulators, medical robots, etc. To overcome these drawbacks, design and manufacturing of a manipulator with three translational degrees of freedom are provided. Design of this manipulator was based on the possibility of three translational motions for its end-effector. The manipulator degrees of freedom are obtained via screw theory. Basic features, consisting of forward and inverse kinematics, workspace and singularity analyzes and also velocity analysis, are considered in this paper. A numerical algorithm is implemented to determine the workspace regarding applied joint limitations and the design parameters were extracted based on to achieving to the desired workspace. The robot motion is created by using of pneumatic actuators which receive their command from a pneumatic servo valve. After design steps, the required elements were provided and assembled in a robotic lab. Finally, the simulation results have transparently approved the improved robots.
Design
manufacturing
translational parallel manipulator
kinematics analysis
workspace
2016
9
01
327
334
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-10872-en.pdf
768-11930
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Parametric study of acoustic streaming in non-Newtonian bio-fluid
Roozbeh
Aayani
Azadeh
Shahidian
Majid
Ghassemi
Ultrasonic waves have variety of applications in bio field. The most important applications are diagnosis and treatment of diseases, drug delivery, cell separation and cell study. Passing ultrasonic waves through tissues and organs, which creates heat, bubble, stress and vibration, can result in chemical reactions, physical and biological changes. What exacerbated the researchers' scientific activities in this area is reducing the harmful effects and increasing the usefulness of this beneficial tool. In current research, the interaction of two nonlinear phenomena, acoustic streaming due to passing ultrasonic waves through bio-fluid and non-Newtonian viscosity is studied numerically. Taking into account nonlinear effects of ultrasonic field, continuity, momentum and state equations are used. In this paper, parametric effects of wall impedance, inlet flow velocity and non-Newtonian viscosity models on acoustic streaming are investigated. Results indicate influence of inlet speed on acoustic streaming velocity magnitude and its ineffectiveness on acoustic streaming profile. By increasing wall impedance, acoustic streaming magnitude decreases. This reduction is more intensive for non-Newtonian fluid. Considering non-Newtonian viscosity model for bio-fluid leads to velocity changes near boundaries, while it has less influence at domain middle.
Nonlinear Ultrasonic field
Acoustofluidics
non-Newtonian fluid
2016
9
01
335
342
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-11930-en.pdf
768-10228
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Numerical study of a detonation wave structure in annular chamber
Mohammad
Farahani
Mohammad
Badrgoltapeh
Detonation engines are expected to be included in a number of aerospace thrusters in the future. Several types of detonation engines are currently under examination, including the rotating detonation engine. In this work, the feasibility study and design of a laboratory sample RDE which has an annular geometry with diameter of 76 mm has been performed. In this sample, hydrogen and standard air are separately injected into the combustion chamber of detonation engine. The injection of fuel and air flows are in the axial and radial directions, respectively. First, numerical studies are validated comparing the FLUENT results with the experimental ones. Then, the geometry and equivalence ratio of injection mixture are investigated parametrically. Considering the negligible variations of thermodynamics parameters in the radial direction of flow field and to reduce the computational costs, a 2D model is used for numerical simulations. Using three different equivalence ratio, it is found that detonation speed, pressure, and temperature behind detonation front, at the equivalence ratio of 1.2 is more than the equivalence ratio of 0.8. Also maximum detonation speed and pressure behind detonation is taken place in stoichiometric condition. The coefficient 0.5 and 2 are used in order to evaluate the effects of chamber length. Because the chamber outflow is semi-subsonic, chamber length change has a significant effect on the engine performance and flow field. The results point out that increasing the chamber length in low injection pressure and high injection pressure leads to increasing and decreasing the height of detonation front, respectively.
Rotating Detonation Engine
Rotating Detonation Combustion Modeling
Geometry design of RDE
2D simulation of RDE
2016
9
01
343
352
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-10228-en.pdf
768-12182
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Modeling and control of a shape memory alloy actuator using fuzzy sliding mode controller
Saeid
Shakki
Mohammad Reza
Zakerzadeh
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are suitable candidates in various fields of engineering. One advantage of these alloys is their capabilities in developing high strain and force. In addition to these great features, lightweight and super-elastic behavior are other traits of these materials. These specifications are of such an importance that make SMAs to be suitably used in further engineering applications. However, their intrinsic hysteresis non-linear behavior make their usage as position actuators difficult. Despite this challenge, there are various methods proposed in the literatures to model the hysteresis behavior of such materials. In this paper, a generalized Prandtl- Ishlinskii model, because of its simplicity, efficiency and inverse analytical capability, has been used for modeling the SMA behavior. In addition, the hysteresis modeling has been validated via experimental data of one of the articles. In the control section, however, two control systems consisting PID and fuzzy sliding mode controllers have been used. Fuzzy sliding mode control system is a method that can be used in systems without mathematical model and leads to increase in their robustness. It is shown in this paper that by using this method, it is possible to apply a suitable control input to the system in order to vanish the error signal. However, by using PID controllers, the error signal is not acceptable due to the constant controller coefficients. The results indicate the more efficient performance of fuzzy sliding mode controller with respect to the classical PID controller.
Generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model
Shape memory alloy
fuzzy sliding mode controller
2016
9
01
353
360
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-12182-en.pdf
768-3594
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Analytical Solution of Optimal Line-of-Sight Strategy for Simplified Integrated Guidance and Control System with Stationary Target
Seyyed Hesam
Sajjadi
Seyed Hamid
Jalali Naini
In this paper, an explicit formulation of optimal line-of-sight strategy is derived in closed-loop for integrated guidance and control (IGC) system without consideration of fin deflection limit. The airframe dynamics is modeled by a second-order nonminimum phase transfer function, describing short period approximation. In the derivation of our optimal control problem, the actuator is assumed to be perfect and without limitation on fin deflection, whereas fin deflection limit is applied for the performance analysis of the presented optimal IGC solution. The problem geometry is assumed in one dimension and the final position and final time are fixed. The formulation is obtained in four different normalized forms to give more insight into the design and performance analysis of the optimal IGC strategy. In addition, guidance gains are obtained analytically in explicit form for steady-state solution. In overall, the performance of IGC is better than that of IGC with steady-state gains, but have more computational burden; however, it is reasonable for now-a-day microprocessors. Curve fitting or look-up table may be used instead for an implementation of optimal IGC strategy. Moreover, parametric study of nondimensional IGC parameters is carried out, such as weighing factor, dc gain, and short period frequency. Finally, the performance of the both IGC strategies is evaluated with airframe model uncertainties.
Integrated Guidance and Control
Optimal Control
Line-of-Sight Guidance
Non-Minimum Phase Systems
2016
9
01
361
372
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-3594-en.pdf
768-12205
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Modeling of simultaneous impact of two parallel drops on a thin liquid film using Lattice Boltzmann Method
Soroush
Fallah Kharmiani
Mohammad
Passandideh Fard
Hamid
Niazmand
In this paper, simultaneous impact of two parallel drops on a thin liquid film is investigated using the lattice Boltzmann method. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of surface tension (characterized by Weber number), distance between two drops, and gas kinematic viscosity on the impact. The developed numerical model in this paper which is based on the Shan and Chen pseudo-potential two-phase model makes it possible to access large density ratios, low viscosities, and tunable values of surface tension independent of the density ratio. The model is validated by comparing the coexistence densities with those of Maxwell analytical solution, evaluating the Laplace law for a droplet, and simulating single droplet impact on a thin liquid film. Simulation results of two drops simultaneous impact show that after impact, two jets raised between the drops join each other and form a central jet. Height of this jet increases with time leading to separation of secondary droplets from its tip. When the surface tension value is decreased, the central jet height is increased, but size of the separated droplets is reduced. The crown shape observed in single drop impact is also seen in simultaneous impact of two drops. Increasing distance between two drops leads to a smaller central jet height and an increase in the crown radius. The crown height, however, was found to be independent of the distance. Finally, increasing gas kinematic viscosity reduces the central jet rising speed and delays separation of secondary droplets from the jet.
Lattice Boltzmann Method
Impact
Droplet
single component two-phase
Shan and Chen
2016
9
01
373
384
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-12205-en.pdf
768-2280
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Study of interaction between prefoldin nano actuator and amyloid beta dimeric pathogenetic cargo with MD simulation
Masud
Keramati
Reza
Hasanzadeh Ghasemi
Alzheimer is the most common form of dementia. Amyloid beta peptides play a key role in the pathology of Alzheimer and the recent surveys have demonstrated that amyloid beta oligomers are the most toxic component of them. Among oligomers, considering the high durability of dimer in comparison to other kinds, it has more toxic effects. Prefoldin is a molecular chaperone which prevents accumulation of misfolded proteins. Prefoldin is demonstrated that it can also operate as a nano actuator. In this article, we investigate the interaction between the prefoldin nano actuator and dimeric pathogenic nano cargo in molecular dimensions, hence the all-atom molecular dynamic simulation in explicit solvent were performed at physiological temperature. Visualizing the results and investigating the atomic distance between nano actuator and pathogenic nano cargo revealed that two arms of six arms of prefoldin nano actuator have been able to capture cargo and during the simulation they have made hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, investigating the hydrophobic effects between the hydrophobic amino acids in the cargo and nano actuator revealed that these effects have positively affected the stability of the binding between arms and the cargo. This article introduces the prefoldin as an inhibitor factor for dimeric oligomer from amyloid beta.
Alzheimer disease
Amyloid beta oligomers
Molecular chaperone
Prefoldin nano actuator
Molecular Dynamics
2016
9
01
385
391
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-2280-en.pdf
768-4977
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Experimental and numerical investigation of liner profile impacts on comminution performance of SAG mill in Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex
Mohammad
Razani
Abolfazl
Masomi
Masoud
Razaeizadeh
Mohammad
Noparast
Today, in the most of mining projects, especially in high volume mining using SAG and AG due to the special features respect to the other conventional methods has been developed. Usually in comminution process a small percentage of energy consumed by grinding and crushing processes. Also, the comminution process depended on many parameters such as: ore hardness, charge volume, size and geometry of ore, charge and size of ball, percentage of critical velocity of mill and liner profile. Therefore, achieving to optimum mentioned factors and consumed energy is of particular importance. Since it is impossible to consider interaction of all effective parameters simultaneously by experimental methods and are expensive and time consuming, in this research the effect of liner profile on comminution process has been investigated by changing the height and angle of liners using numerical method. In recent work the results of scaled experimental mill has been used for validation of numerical method. The results show a liner with a height of 140 mm and an angle of 15 degrees has the maximum impact and comminution. The results from FEM model of the SAG mill at Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex, are in good agreement with the measured data from experimental SAG mill.
SAG mill
liner profile
Grinding
FEM method
2016
9
01
392
398
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-4977-en.pdf
768-11199
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
7
Offering a model for prediction of pollution increasing with time in residential enclosed parking lots
Javad
Amnian
Mehdi
Maerefat
The intense increasing of pollutions from cars in the enclosed residential parking lots is an important challenge. Forecast and estimate of generated pollution from cars is applicable for proper design of residential car parks. In this article, the pollution concentration in a residential parking lot is measured experimentally and the results are used for validation of numerical solution. In the second part, the pollutions are simulated in several parking lots and the equation of pollution incensement with time is proposed and offered in the form of analytical equation. By using this equation, the allowable time of man’s presence in these parking lots is offered.
Pollution dispersion
Numerical simulation
experimental measurement
the relation of pollution incensement
2016
9
01
399
402
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-11199-en.pdf