2018-08-21T03:26:00+04:30
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/browse.php?mag_id=793&slc_lang=fa&sid=15
793-8818
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
IFC
2016
11
01
0
0
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-8818-en.pdf
793-6032
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Sound transmission across double-walled orthotropic cylindrical shells under incidence wave with two various angles based on the three-dimensional elasticity theory
Roohollah
Talebi Tooti
Amir Mohammad
Choudari Khameneh
In this paper, sound transmission loss through double-walled orthotropic cylindrical shells based on three-dimensional elasticity theory is investigated. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the acoustic wave incidence under two different angels on sound transmission loss through the shell. The present model is a double-walled orthotropic cylindrical shell immersed in a fluid with an infinite length, whereas the acoustic plane incident waves impinge upon the shell with two different angels of θ and δ. The state space method is used to investigate the laminate approximated model along with transfer matrix approach for modeling both walls of cylindrical shell. In order to consider the two different angles of θ and δ, the corresponding wave equations have been modified according to the wave numbers. Comparing the results obtained from presents study with those of other researchers shows an excellent agreement between the results. Moreover, the effects of different parameters on sound transmission loss through the shell have been evaluated. The results show an enhancement of sound transmission loss in double-walled cylindrical shells rather than single-walled cylindrical shells particularly in high frequency range. Also, the results indicate the dependency of sound transmission loss on both of two θ and δ angels. In other word, the variety of two incident angles may cause the significant variations in sound transmission loss.
Sound transmission loss
Three-dimensional elasticity
Double-walled orthotropic
State space method
Transfer matrix
2016
11
01
1
11
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-6032-en.pdf
793-9535
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Simulation of carbon nanotubes ant its allotropes manipulation by molecular dynamics approach
Moharam
Habibnejad Korayem
Hasan
Aslani Payan
Ahmad
Homayooni
Rouzbeh
Nouhi Hefzabad
In this paper, the modeling and simulation of manipulation of carbon nanoparticles have been investigated. The geometry plays a significant role in the dynamic behavior of nanoparticles manipulation and the evaluation of different geometric shapes of nanoparticles in this process is very important. To examine the geometry effects, the manipulation of a different kind of the nano-carbon allotropes has been studied. Furthermore, the manipulation of carbon nanotubes with different diameter has been simulated. For this purpose, the molecular dynamics method has been used to improve our knowledge and understanding about the nanomanipulation processes and dynamics. In the manipulation of carbon allotropes, the results indicated that more spherical allotrope Modes away, the easier manipulation process occurred and the forces on the probe have been reduced; this is due to the curvature of tip and nanoparticle. The results of nanotubes manipulation showed that increasing the diameter of the nanotube causes to increase the force on the probe. The indentation depth was extracted for each nanotube during the manipulation process. The results indicated that the indentation depth increases versus diameter increasing. According to the application of carbon-based structures and nanotubes as the drug carriers in medicine, such this simulation studies can reduce time and cost of experimental projects in this field.
manipulation
Nanorobotics
Molecular Dynamics
Allotropes of carbon
Geometry effects
2016
11
01
12
18
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-9535-en.pdf
793-1075
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Design and Practical Implementation of attitude PID controller with fuzzy system to adjust the controller gain values for quadrotor
Vahid
Tikani
Hamed
Shahbazi
This paper presents a completely practical control approach for quadrotor drone. Quadrotor is modelled using Euler-Newton equations. For stabilization and control of quadrotor a classic PID controller has been designed and implemented on the plant and a fuzzy controller is used to adjust the controller parameters. Considering that quadrotor is a nonlinear system, using classic controllers for the plant is not effective enough. Therefor using fuzzy system which is a nonlinear controller is effective for the nonlinear plant. According to the desire set point, fuzzy system adjusts the controller gain values to improve the performance of quadrotor and it leads to better results than classical PID controller. To study the performance of fuzzy PID controller on attitude control of the system, a quadrotor is installed to the designed stand. The system consists of accelerometer and gyroscope sensors and a microcontroller which is used to design fuzzy PID attitude controller for the quadrotor. Considering that the experimental data has lots of errors and noises, Kalman filter is used to reduce the noises. Finally using the Kalman filter leads to better estimation of the quadrotor angle position and the fuzzy PID controller performs the desired motions successfully.
Fuzzy PID controller
Quadrotor
Kalman filter
Fuzzy system
Attitude controller
2016
11
01
19
28
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1075-en.pdf
793-504
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Investigation of ultrasonic peening technology on the GSH48 graphite steel
Saeed
Amini
Alireza
Abbasi
Ghanbarali
Shikhzadeh
In this study, the use of Ultrasonic Peening Technology (UPT) on the of mill rollers graphite steel (GSH48) for enhancement of some of the surface mechanical properties was surveyed. One of the new technologies for severe plastic deformation is ultrasonic peening technology in which vibratory tool strikes the workpiece surface with continual reciprocating motions, resulting in severe plastic deformation on surface. This method improves mechanical properties like hardness, surface roughness, fatigue life and tension strength. With simulation and manufacturing of peening vibratory tool, preparation of process was accomplished including setting up the ultrasonic vibratory tool on lathe machine. The investigation of hardness tests, surface roughness, fatigue and tension strength on the pieces was performed in different conditions, before and after the process of ultrasonic peening with one, two and three passes. The results showed increase of hardness up to %36 in depth of 0.2 mm. Also, the surface roughness was reduced from Ra=1.376 µm to Ra= 0.545 µm. The most improvement in surface roughness and fatigue life was observed at the pieces with three passes of ultrasonic peening.
Ultrasonic Peening Technology
Horn
Transducer
Abaqus
Mechanical Properties
2016
11
01
29
36
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-504-en.pdf
793-3165
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Improvement of vehicle stability by H-Infinity adaptive fuzzy controller: a new VGS model
Mansour
Baghalian
Ali Akbar
Akbari
Recently, H-Infinity adaptive fuzzy controller (HAFC) and its potential application in improving vehicle stability has some attention. This paper studied this application by developing a nonlinear model for the vehicle suspension mounting point displacement (SMD) and the variable geometry suspension system (VGS). The VGS model was developed by deriving the kinematic equations from the vehicle double wishbone suspension system for the vehicle handling model with eight degrees of freedom (8DOF). The limited area of the SMD necessitates the use of a proper controller, so this paper investigated the suitability of a proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID), an adaptive fuzzy controller (AFC), and HAFC for this purpose. The stability status and adaptation laws were assessed by Lyapunov synthesis and the result showed that integral of square error (ISE) achievable by HAFC for two standard maneuvers is lower than PID and AFC. The result also showed that SMD of HAFC is lower than AFC and extremely PID. The use of HAFC also resulted in the best vehicle stability, soft response and robustness.
H- Infinity adaptive fuzzy control
variable geometry suspension system
new nonlinear model of VGS
vehicle stability
2016
11
01
37
46
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-3165-en.pdf
793-10680
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Analytical solution and numerical simulation of the liver tissue behavior under uniaxial compression test
Zahra
Matin Ghahfarokhi
Mahdi
Moghimi Zand
Mehdi
Salmani Tehrani
This paper deals with studying and developing a proper constitutive model for liver tissue. For this purpose, deformation of liver in uniaxial compression, for two different strain rates, is analytically and numerically studied, based on both hyperelastic and hyperviscoelastic constitutive models. Both of the models are based on a polynomial-form energy function. The stress-strain curves, for uniaxial compression, obtained from these models, have been fitted to the existing experimental data to determine the model coefficients. Moreover the models are examined in uniaxial tension and pure shear loadings. ABAQUS commercial software, in which both of the models are available, has been used for numerical simulations. Then, to evaluate the computational analyses, analytical and numerical results have been compared with each other and also with the existing experimental data. The results show that the presented analytical solution and FE simulation are very close together and also both are accurate enough, compared with the experimental data and an acceptable stability is observed. Furthermore the effect of friction coefficient between the sample and the compressing plate in uniaxial compression test has been investigated. FE simulation results show that the stress will increase with increasing friction coefficient. This implies that friction coefficient must be carefully selected to accurately describe the tissue’s response. Compared with previously published researches on other tissues, the constitutive models adopted here to predict liver behavior is mathematically more complex due to non-zero material constants. Analytical solution of these constitutive models is, in fact, the main challenge and innovation of this paper.
Liver Soft Tissue
Mechanical behavior
Analytical Solution
Finite element simulation
Hyperviscoelastic Model
2016
11
01
47
56
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-10680-en.pdf
793-8062
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Restoring scraped surfaces of shaft and bearing in interference fit joints by hard chromium plating
Rahman
Seifi
Kaveh
Abasi
Interference fitting widely used in the industry for connecting shafts and bushes. These type of joints are widely used as support of bearing machine parts. Rrepeated disassembling of shaft and bush interference fit, performed to repair and maintenance of machine parts, may cause serious damage to surface of joint parts depending on the roughness and surface quality of contact surface of joint parts. Bushes are usually expendable parts, but the shaft parts are long integrated and complex parts which supports other components of machine. So providing a way to repair the shaft surface can be considered crucial and leads to restoration of damaged shaft and reduced costs. In this study, we have investigated the effect of interference surface roughness on strength, friction coefficient of the contact surface and surface damage of interference fit joints during the disassembling procedure. Finite element and experimental analysis were performed to estimate friction coefficient in contact surface of joint parts. Also, magnified pictures of contact surfaces were applied, to evaluate the extent of damage in contact surface after disassembling of joints parts. Hard chromium plating was proposed to repair the shaft surface and the effect of hard chromium plating on strength of shaft and bush joints were measured experimentally. The results confirm successful use of hard chrome plating in repairing the shaft surface so that the strength of restored shaft joints were equal and in some instances even more than the initial joints.
Interference fit joint
Finite element analysis
Extraction strength
Hard chromium plating
2016
11
01
57
64
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-8062-en.pdf
793-1453
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Numerical simulation of falling droplet under uniform magnetic field, using a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann and finite-volume method
Mohsen
Nazari
Atena
Ghaderi
Mohammad Hassan
Kayhani
In this study, falling ferrofluid droplet behavior in nonmagnetic viscous fluid under the uniform magnetic field in two-phase flow is studied numerically. To this approach, a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann base shan-chen model and finite-volume method is used. The lattice Boltzmann equation with the magnetic force term is solved to update the flow field while the magnetic induction equation is solved using the finite volume method to calculate the magnetic field. To validate the flow field solution two tests have been considered: the free bubble rising and Laplace law. In order to validate the magnetic field, permeable circle and deformation of static drop under magnetic field is simulated. The comparison of results between present study and previous researches shows that there is a good agreement between the results. The effects of the magnetic Bond number, susceptibility and magnetic field direction on deformation of the falling droplet are investigated. The results show that increase in the magnetic Bond number or susceptibility leads to a larger deformation of the droplet. Also in horizontal magnetic field, the falling process takes more time in compared to the vertical magnetic field.
Two phase flow
Lattice Boltzmann Method
Shan–Chen model
Ferrofluid
Uniform magnetic field
2016
11
01
65
76
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1453-en.pdf
793-10026
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Modeling the Wake of MEXICO Experiment’s Wind Turbine Using Elliptic Force Distribution in Actuator-Line Method in OpenFOAM
Mohsen
Boojari
Esmail
Mahmoodi
Ali
Abbas Nejad
Sasan
Sarmast
Wind turbines are highly complex structures for numerical flow simulation. Today, developments and increasing the use of wind energy in the world has created a demand for increasingly accurate and efficient models for wind applications. Wind turbine wakes have significant effects on decreasing the produced power and blades fatigue loads. thus, the wakes study has great importance in wind turbine simulations. Actuator line model (ALM) is one of the most accurate models for characterization of the flow field and the turbulent wakes created by the turbines. AL model does not require boundary layer resolution and is thus significantly more efficient than the fully-resolved computations. this model can accurately simulate the wakes of wind turbines operating in a flow field without any need to create or import the CAD models of turbine and just by using turbine parameters. In this paper, AL method implemented in openFOAM solver and a new method used to spread forces on actuator lines. in order to validate the results, MEXICO rotor was modeled and large eddy simulation’s turbulence model is used to investigate the flow field around wind turbine. Simulation has been done for two different conditions include design conditions and stalled conditions. Results obtained for predicted wakes and performance parameters, were compared to experimental data and it was observed that the ALM results agree well with measured data. Stall condition’s results were in better agreement with experimental dada so that the thrust had 8.5% difference and the toque and power had 2.8 and 2.4% respectively.
Actuator-Line
Wake
Large Eddy Simulation
MEXICO rotor
2016
11
01
77
86
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-10026-en.pdf
793-5598
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Numerical investigation of different gas leakage behavior in ventilated cavitating flow structure
Mehdi
Maerefat
Sohrab
Tahmasebi
Mohammad Reza
Ansari
In ventilated cavitating flow structure, two parameters are very important, Fr number and gas entrainment coefficient .The objective of this paper is to investigate the ventilated cavitating flow structure by numerical methods and verify with experimental results. The numerical simulation is performed by ANSYS-FLUENT and homogenous mixture model with a free slip velocity and DES turbulence model, and the gravity effect is considered. The results show when the gas entrainment coefficient Qv is constant, two typical mechanisms of the gas leakage exist at different Fr numbers, namely toroidal vortex mode and two hollow tube vortex mode .With the increasing of Fr, the cavity would transfer from the two hollow tube vortices to the toroidal vortices. Moreover, when the Fr number keeps constant, the enlargement of the cavity causes the gravitational effect to be more significant for the case of larger value of Qv. DES turbulence model is combined from two model, SST k – ω and LES model and is suitable for simulating of two hollow tube vortices mode
Ventilated cavitating flow
Gas leakage behavior
Super cavitation
2016
11
01
87
96
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-5598-en.pdf
793-4771
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Determination of rheological parameters of the Cross model for semi-solid Al7075 by using parallel plate compression and backward extrusion experiments
Ramin
Meshkabadi
Ghader
Faraji
Vahid
Pouyafar
Akbar
Javdani
Metallic alloys exhibit rheological behavior similar to non-Newtonian fluids in the semi-solid temperature range. This behavior can be described using rheological models. In this study, the viscosity of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy was measured by using the results of load-displacement signals obtained from two different experiments: parallel plate compression and backward extrusion. The obtained data were used to determine the parameters of the Cross model in a wide range of shear rates. The effects of temperature (solid fraction) and shear rate were studied on the viscosity of the alloy. The results showed that with increasing temperature and decreasing the solid fraction the resistance to flow decreases, resulting in a reduced amount of applied forces. This reduction in applied forces results in reducing the viscosity. It was observed that the behavior of semi-solid alloy is shear thinning in which the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate. Also, the calculated viscosity values of the four parameters Cross model were in good agreement with the obtained experimental results in a wide range of shear rates. The simulation results showed a good agreement of the presented model for predicting the rheological properties and flow behavior of the semi-solid alloy in a wide range of shear rates.
7075 Aluminum Alloy
Compression Between Parallel Plate
Backward Extrusion Test
Cross Model
Semi-Solid Forming
2016
11
01
97
106
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-4771-en.pdf
793-6988
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Oil pipeline leak diagnosis using wavelet transform and statistical features with artificial neural network application
Morteza
Zadkarami
Mehdi
Shahbazian
Karim
Salahshoor
Oil pipeline leakages, if not properly treated, can result in huge losses. The first step in tackling these leakages is to diagnose their location. This paper employs a data-driven Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system not only to detect the occurrence and location of a leakage fault, but also to estimate its severity (size) with extreme accuracy. In the present study, the Golkhari-Binak pipeline, located in southern Iran, is modeled in the OLGA software. The data used to train the data-driven FDI system is acquired by this model. Different leakage scenarios are applied to the pipeline model; then, the corresponding inlet pressure and outlet flow rates are recorded as the training data. The time-domain data are transformed into the wavelet domain; then, the statistical features of the data are extracted from both the wavelet and the time domains. Each of these features are then fed into a Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) which functions as the FDI system. The results show that the system with the wavelet-based statistical features outperforms that of the time-domain based features. The proposed FDI system is also able to diagnose the leakage location and severity with a low False Alarm Rate (FAR) and a high Correct Classification Rate (CCR).
Leak diagnosis
Statistical feature
Wavelet transform
Artificial Neural Network
2016
11
01
107
112
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-6988-en.pdf
793-3107
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Dynamic analysis of the sandwich curved beams with flexible core in the steady state thermal condition and subjected to radial low-velocity impact and
Keramat
Malekzadeh Fard
Saeed
Shokrollahi
Ebrahim
Eissazadeh
Alireza
Pourmoayed
In this paper, the behavior of curved sandwich beam with a soft flexible core, under low-velocity impact, loaded with environmental thermal effects by pursuing the use of the high order shear deformation theory of sandwich structures is investigated. The Sandwich beam is comprised of composite sheets and foam core. The boundary condition is simply supported by probability of circumferential deflection. Two degrees of freedom for mass- spring model was used for modeling the impact phenomena. In the presented formulation, the first order of shearing deformation theory is used for sheets,the core Displacement field is considered unknown and then by using elasticity theory and compatible condition in the core, sheets common face and the relation of stress-strain core deflection are determined. In order to derive the governing equations of beam structure, the Hamilton principle was used. For validation, the results obtained from this research are compared with the results of other researchers and also the numerical result of ABAQUS software. The comparison of results shows good agreement. The effects of various parameters like impact velocity and mass, environmental temperature, core and sheets thickness and materials on core and sheets deflection and core stress and impact force were studied. The obtained results showed that increasing environmental temperature has a slight effect on impact force, but more effect on beam dynamic response. It is also shown that with increasing the hardness of beam, the energy absorption is reduced.
Low-velocity impact
Curved sandwich beam
Environment temperature
High-order theory
2016
11
01
113
123
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-3107-en.pdf
793-6829
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Controlling state of quantum system using fuzzy controller
Hassan
Sedghee Rostami
Behrooz
Rezaie
In this paper, a control method based on fuzzy systems is presented to drive and keep state of a sample quantum system into a pre-defined region. The considered quantum system is a third-order quantum system and the model of the system is bilinear model. In addition, measurements of the system in the defined region are obtained at each times by considering the effects of such measurements in the internal state of the system. The effect of unwanted inputs and structural uncertainties also are considered as bounded uncertainties in the system’s Hamiltonian. In this paper, it is assumed that the initial state of the system is determined and internal state system are available as the feedback signals at each instant of time. In the proposed control approach, an acceptable region is firstly defined around the desired final state. Then, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system improved using imperialist competitive algorithm is used for driving the system’s state toward the desired final state within this region. In addition, a fuzzy supervisor is utilized to adjust a control parameter for preserving the state of the quantum system inside the defined region. Simulation results, obtained by applying the proposed method to a sample third-order quantum system in presence of bounded uncertainties show the applicability and effectiveness of the method for controlling the quantum systems.
Quantum systems
Fuzzy controller
Improved adaptive neuro fuzzy inference systems
Imperialist Competitive Algorithm
2016
11
01
124
134
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-6829-en.pdf
793-10400
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Commercial optimization of biodiesel production from rapeseed oil as a clean fuel for thermal power plants
Alireza
Zahedi
Mohammad
Mirabdoli
Ardeshir
Shayan Nezhad
In recent years, coinciding with the expansion of biofuel production, attempts have also been made to optimize production processes. In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to investigation the transesterification reaction of rapeseed oil for biodiesel production. Three main factors in order to convert triglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were applied according to a central composite design. These factors were catalyst concentration (NaOH), reaction temperature and time. The yield of methyl ester as the first response was determined using NMR method. The second response was the commercial cost of production. The results showed that the best conditions for producing biodiesel in constant the molar ratio of 1: 6 oil: methanol were the temperature of 47.27 oC, NaOH concentration of 1.24 %wt/wt and reaction time of 30 min. At these optimum conditions, the yield of methyl ester and cost of production is 77.67% and 67 ¢, respectively. Also, some chemical and physical properties of biodiesel were compared with petro-diesel fuel. According to the results, biodiesel fuel is a suitable substitute for petro-diesel fuel.
biodiesel
Rapeseed oil
transesterification
design of experiments
2016
11
01
135
142
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-10400-en.pdf
793-1060
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Numerical simulation of free convection heat transfer of nanofluid in a wavy-wall cavity with sinusoidal temperature distribution, using lattice Boltzmann method
Alireza
Shahriari
In this paper, free convection heat transfer of Al2O3/water nanofluid within an enclosed cavity is studied by adopting the Lattice Boltzmann Model. The left and right side walls of the cavity have a complex-wavy surface and the left wall is heated by a sinusoidal temperature distribution higher than the right cold wall. The top and the bottom horizontal walls are smooth and insulated against heat and mass. In this study, the variation of density is slight thus by using the Boussinesq approximation would be influencing the Hydrodynamics field of the thermal field. The density and energy distribution are both solved by D2Q9 model. The inﬂuence of pertinent parameters such as solid volume fraction of nanoparticles, Rayleigh numbers, complex-wavy-wall geometry parameters, phase deviation and amplitude of the sinusoidal temperature function on ﬂow and heat transfer fields are investigated. Results show for Rayleigh numbers in the range of Ra=103 -105, with increasing volume fraction of nanoparticles, Nusselt number increases. In addition, it is shown that for a fixed Rayleigh number, the heat transfer performance depends on tuning the wavy-surface geometry parameters. The greatest effects of nanoparticles are observed for different values of the phase deviation with increasing of Rayleigh number. This study can, provide a useful insight for enhancing the convection heat transfer performance within enclosed cavities with complex-wavy-wall surfaces and sinusoidal temperature distribution.
nanofluid
Lattice Boltzmann Method
Free Convection
Complex-Wavy-Wall
Sinusoidal Temperature Distribution
2016
11
01
143
154
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1060-en.pdf
793-1056
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Dynamic Behavior Analysis of Atomic Force Microscope Based on Gradient Theory
Mohammad
Ali mohammadi
Aghil
Yousefi Koma
Morad
Karimpour
Ehasn
Maani Miandoab
In this paper, the dynamic behavior of atomic force microscope (AFM) based on non-classical strain gradient theory was analyzed. For this aim atomic force microscope micro-beam with attached tip has been modeled as a lumped mass. Micro-beam has stimulated via a piezoelectric element attached to the end of clamped and non-linear partial differential equation of the system has extracted based on Euler-Bernoulli theory and to be converted into ordinary differential equation by using Galerkin and separation method. The classic continuum theory because of lack of consideration size effect that has been observed in many experimental studies, has little accuracy in predicting the mechanical behavior of Nano devices. In this study, the stability region of micro-beam are determined analytically and validated by comparison with numerical results. Difference between presented analysis in dynamic behavior of micro-beam by classic and non-classic theories has been shown with variety of diagrams. It is clear that consideration the size effect changes the dynamical behavior of the problem completely and it is possible while classical theory predicts stable behavior for microscope the size effect is caused bi-stability. The results in this paper are very useful for the design and analysis of atomic force microscope.
Micro-beam
Tip
Piezoelectric
Euler-Bernoulli
Galerkin
Strain gradient
2016
11
01
155
164
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1056-en.pdf
793-1510
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
The effect of porosity and Cu-nanoparticles on melting of Cyclohexane in porous cavity
Majid
Tahmasebi
Behzad
Ghasemi
Afrasiab
Raisi
Abstract melting of Cyclohexane-Cu nano-material in a porous square cavity is studied numerically in this paper. At first initial temperature of the cavity is Ti that is equal to melting temperature of nano-material,Tm ,. The horizontal walls are adiabatic. Suddenly the left wall's temperature has changed to Th>Tm . The effective parameters in this case are and which appear in the nondimensionalized equations. Nondimensionalized governing equations are obtained based on the Darcy model; a control volume approach is used for solving these equations. The effect of the variation of mentioned parameters are investigated on the heat transfer rate, fluid flow, isotherms and melting time of nano-PCM. The results show that changing of any parameters will be effective on increase or decrease of heat transfer rate and melting process time. For example variation of has high effect on melt fraction in cavity with time. The results show that melting of PCM is prolonged when nano-particles are added. the increases of the Ra increases the natural convection heat transfer and therefore increases the melting rate, and deforms the melting line.
Melting
Nano–PCM
Porous cavity
2016
11
01
165
174
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1510-en.pdf
793-1314
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Free vibration analysis of rotating grid stiffened composite cylindrical shells
Mehdi
Zarei
Gholam Hossein
Rahimi
Rotating cylindrical shells are applied in different industrial applications, such as gas turbine engines, electric motors, rotary kilns and rotor systems. So, it is of great interest to conduct some researches to improve the understanding of vibrational characteristics of rotating cylindrical shells. Grid stiffened laminated composite cylindrical shells are used as components of aerospace, marine industries and civil engineering structures. In this research free vibration of rotating grid stiffened composite cylindrical shell with various boundary conditions using the Fourier series expansion method is presented. Smeared method is employed to superimpose the stiffness contribution of the stiffeners with those of shell in order to obtain the equivalent stiffness parameters of the whole structure. The stiffeners are considered as a beam and support shear loads and bending moments in addition to the axial loads. Strain displacement relations from Sanders's shell theory are employed in the analysis. Using the Fourier series expansion and Stokes’ transformation, frequency determinant of laminated cylindrical shells is derived. The effects of shell geometrical parameters and changes in the cross stiffeners angle and axial loading on the natural frequencies are investigated. Results given are novel and can be used as a benchmark for further studies.
Free vibrations
rotating
grid stiffened
Stokes’ transformation
2016
11
01
175
185
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1314-en.pdf
793-389
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Vibration analysis of a beam under external periodic excitation using a nonlinear energy sink
Ali
Ebrahimi Mamaghani
Siamak
Esameilzadeh Khadem
This paper investigates vibration analysis of a clamped-clamped beam attached to a nonlinear energy sink (with nonlinear stiffness and damping) under an external harmonic force. The bream is modeled using the Euler-Bernouli beam theory. Different locations for nonlinear energy sink are chosen and the effects of various parameters on behavior of the system are considered. Required conditions for occurring the Saddle-node bifurcations and the Hopf bifurcations in the system are studied. In vibration analysis, the frequency response diagram of the system is very important because it shows the best regions for attenuation of vibration and is a good criterion for designing nonlinear energy sinks; hence Complexification-Averaging method is used to find simply the amplitude of oscillation in terms of excitation load. For validation and comparison, numerical simulation (Runge-Kuta method) is used. The results demonstrate that by approaching the position of nonlinear energy sink to the beam supports, probability of occurrence of the Hopf and the saddle-node bifurcations decreases and increases, respectively, detached response curve will be formed in smaller range of external amplitude force. Moreover, by increasing external amplitude force, the steady state amplitude of the system increases smoothly.
Euler-Bernouli Beam
Nonlinear Energy Sink
Hopf Bifurcation
Saddle-node Bifurcations Detached Resonance curve
2016
11
01
186
194
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-389-en.pdf
793-8333
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Design of clamping system for workpiece with freeform geometry
Hadi
Parvaz
Mohammad Javad
Nategh
Jig and fixture design for workpieces with freeform geometry has more complexity in comparison with the polyhedral parts. The locating and clamping system design construct the basis of the jig and fixture design activities. In this study, a theoretical analysis is suggested for automatic design of clamping points for freeform workpieces. The clamping design is performed in three main stages which the clamping application points are determined through the first two principles and being verified through the last stage. The mentioned principles consist of: (1) the minimum quantity of clamps, (2) the maximum clamping force components on the locating directions and (3) the workpiece static stability under the external wrenches. After mathematical modeling, the suggested analysis was implemented into the already designed CAFD framework by the authors. Three machining models were chosen as case studies to evaluate the capabilities of the implemented system in robust design of clamping layout. The minimum quantity of clamps (single clamp for two case studies and double clamp for the third one) was designed by the developed method that verified the robustness and reliability of the suggested and implemented clamping system design model. The automatic design of clamping scheme for workpieces (regardless of the geometry) beside its capability in integration with the other modules of fixture design activities provides the opportunity for the system to be used in industrial applications.
Clamping System Design
Fixture Design
Free-form Geometry
Stability analysis
Turbine Blade
2016
11
01
195
206
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-8333-en.pdf
793-2719
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Experimental investigation on the roll forming of PVC /aluminum/glass fabric FMLs into channel section profiles
Vahid
Zal
Hassan
Moslemi Naeini
Ahmad Reza
Bahramian
Javad
Shahbazi Karami
Due to the polar functional groups of PVC thermoplastic and its good adhesiveness to the metals, production and roll forming of PVC/ aluminuim/ glass fiber FMLs were investigated in this research. At the first, flexural strength and bonding quality between PVC matrix and aluminuim layer in the FMLs were studied by doing three point bending tests according to ASTM D790 standard. In the following, FMLs with dimension of 12×80 cm and two layups including [0/90, 0/90, Al]s and [45/-45, 45/-45, Al]s were produced using film stacking and hot pressing procedure. The FMLs were rollformed into 30, 45 and 60º channel section profiles at 160ᵒC using a single stand rollforming process and geometrical decects including profile bowing, edge wrinkling, spring back and also aluminuim/composite layers delamination of the resulted profiles were evaluated. The FMLs also were roll formed into 86º channel section profiles using a multi stand roll forming process and the effects of multi stand roll forming on the defects stacking were evaluated. Finally, it was concluded that more than 45º bend angle increase in a rollforming stand results in composite/ aluminum delamination. Also, placement of the reinforcing fibers in the longitudinal direction of the profiles reduces the profile bowing and edge wrinkling defects significantly.
PVC/aluminum/fiberglass FMLs
Roll Forming
Delamination
Geometrical defects
2016
11
01
207
215
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-2719-en.pdf
793-1154
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
DESIGN OF HEXAPOD WALKING ROBOT BASED ON WORKSPACE MAXIMIZATION
Hamid
Rastgar
Mohammad Mehdi
Agheli Hajiabadi
Hexapod walking robots can be employed for both walking and manipulation purposes. When manipulating, they have 6 degrees of freedom for top platform, high rigidity, high load capacity, high speed, and accuracy. On the other hand, it is very well known that they have limited workspace when they are fixed in place for manipulation. Designing a hexapod robot resulting in a maximized workspace can greatly affect the efficiency of the robot when manipulating. Since radially symmetric hexapod walking robots can be modeled as three 2-RPR planar parallel mechanisms, we have used the methods and calculations that used in this kind of mechanism for designing a radially symmetric hexapod walking robot. In this paper, after a thorough review on existing methods for calculating and improving 2-RPR planar parallel mechanism workspace, an algorithm is presented, which results in a maximized reachable workspace. The merit of the method is that there is no need to calculate the workspace volume when maximizing the workspace volume. Also, following this algorithm is necessary for design of the maximized-workspace robot. In other words, the output of the presented optimization algorithm is a set of robot kinematic parameters, which guarantees the maximized volume of the robot’s reachable workspace.
Hexapod
workspace
reachable workspace
Optimization
manipulation
2016
11
01
216
222
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1154-en.pdf
793-1771
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Experimental and numerical forming of T shaped metallic tubes subjected to hydrodynamic loading
Majid
Ali Tavoli
Hashem
Babaei
Arman
Mohseni
Reza
Rajabiehfard
In this paper, in order to build T shaped tube by hydroforming method, the drop hammer system is used which leads to the hydrodynamic load. To form the first piece as the die configuration, the hydraulic internal pressure and axial feeding is required, and in the study of this process a source of energy should be used in two ways. According to mentioned load path, the die designed to get the impact of free fall weight by pistons on the die, and it makes the hydraulic pressure. by putting the punches on both sides of the tube, axial feeding takes place with receiving the hydraulic pressure of Intermediate fluid, and the internal pressure provides with transmission the fluid from the middle hole of the punches. It is worth noting that copper and aluminum tubes have been analyzed in experimental tests. To check the numerical analysis of final pieces and improve the quality of shaping, the finite element software ABAQUS is used. The simulation model of forming T shaped tube has been evaluated dynamically by considering the effect of strain rate and mechanical properties of tube material. The results of tests show that to have favorable deformation, all the input parameters such as the kinetic energy, fluid column, sealing, Lubrication, gender and the thickness of tube should be proportional together. Also in this study, the height of the bulge has been analyzed due to the thickness distribution, axial displacement and surface embrace.
Hydroforming
experimental
Drop hammer
T shaped tube
Fluid column
2016
11
01
223
232
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1771-en.pdf
793-441
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Reliability assessment of cylinder strut of a training airplane by means of probabilistic design methodology
Alireza
Saadat
Ehsan
Barati
In this paper the methodology of reliability analysis in aerial structures has been developed. This methodology has been carried out on a special specimen. The selected specimen is a cylinder strut of the landing gear system of a training airplane. This specimen is one of the most important part of the landing gear system. Because of it’s special shape, there is no analytical solution for calculation of stress in it. Therefore, by means of the surface response method and Box-Behnken tables, a deterministic equation for calculating the stresses in critical points of the specimen has been produced. Then in order to obtain the reliability of this part via probabilistic method, Monte Carlo simulation has been used. The applied loads have been modeled whit one pressure, one bending moment and one concentrated force. These loads have been assumed to be independent random variables. Also, the probability distribution function of the pressure and the bending moment have been assumed to be normal and the probability distribution function of the concentrated force has been assumed to be lognormal. The dimensions of the specimen is deterministic and the mechanical properties of the material is a normal distribution with standard deviation equals to be 10 percent of its mean value. The results showed that the minimum reliability of this specimen is 99.9997 percent. So, the design of the cylinder strut is safe for aerial applications in reliability viewpoint.
Reliability
Monte Carlo simulation
Response surface method
Box-Behnken tables
Cylinder strut
2016
11
01
233
240
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-441-en.pdf
793-4137
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Study of mass reduction possibility of a cubic microsatellite by replacing isogrid structure with sandwich panel structure using finite element analysis
Mohammad Reza
Roosta
Majid
Safarabadi
In this research the possibility of mass reduction in a two-module cubic microsatellite with skin – frame structure is studied. Natural frequencies and effective mass distribution change by replacing isogrid structure with sandwich panel (honeycomb). Modal effective mass is a dynamic characteristic of structure and depends on natural frequencies, mode shapes, general masses and eigenvectors. Modal effective mass is a quantity that shows the importance of a mode when satellite is under acceleration loads through the baseplate. High modal effective mass shows high reaction loads on baseplate in corresponding frequency. Also acting dynamic loads are affected by distribution of modes in frequency range. The sum of effects of different modes creates significant reaction loads. Hence, study of frequency and effective mass changes by converting the structure design from isogrid to sandwich structure is necessary. In this paper, first two isogrid and sandwich structures with equal masses are compared. Then mass of sandwich structure is decreased such a way that natural frequencies of light sandwich structure approach natural frequencies of isogrid structure. In equal masses case, natural frequencies of sandwich structure are twice the natural frequencies of isogrid structure but effective mass distribution of isogrid structure is better along the launch direction. By changing the isogrid structure design to sandwich panel structure and optimization of the new structure characteristics a noticeable reduction in mass and improvement in modal behavior could be obtained.
Microsatellite
Isogrid
Sandwich panel
Finite element
2016
11
01
241
248
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-4137-en.pdf
793-1219
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Fabrication of metal-polymer hybrid via injection molding of polymer on laser cladded metal
Alireza
Omidvar
Peiman
Mosaddegh
Hadi
Bahadoran
Metals and polymers are frequent materials for engineering purposes. Technological advances have called for new materials with high stiffness and low production cost, especially in automotive industry. Up until now, the more common approach was to employ high strength metals like steel in manufacturing different parts and coating them subsequently with regard to their application, in order to reach maximum performance. One of the novel composites is metal-polymer hybrid which is produced by injection molding a layer of polymer on a laser cladded metal to form a laminated composite. The superiority of this method lies in the diversity of pattern and powder material and feed rate in cladding that can be optimized for a particular loading in different applications. Evaluating parameters are, holding pressure, mold temperature, cladding pattern, and polymer thickness. Simple Tension and three-point bending tests showed that the maximum strength of joint adhesion was achieved at mold temperature, lower holding pressure (70MPa), higher thickness (3mm), and parallel pattern. Moreover, better flexural modulus was reached at mold temperature, lower holding pressure (70MPa), lower thickness (2mm), and parallel pattern.
Metal-Polymer hybrid
Injection Molding
Laser cladding
Taguchi
2016
11
01
249
256
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1219-en.pdf
793-1524
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Three dimensional micromechanical modeling of damping capacity of nano fiber reinforced polymer nanocomposites
Mohammad
Vakilifard
MohammadJavad
Mahmoodi
In this research, a three dimensional analytical method is presented for predicting the dynamic properties of polymer nanocomposites. In the present method elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle is applied on the simplified method of cell, and loss modulus, storage modulus, loss factor and Hysteresis loop are obtained using energy method as well as force balance method. The considered nanocomposite possesses Polypropylene as a matrix reinforced by vapor grown carbon fibers. The rrepresentative volume element consists of three isotropic phases including fiber, interphase and matrix with linear viscoelastic behavior based on Zener model. Furthermore the nanocomposite constituents dynamic properties are extracted in frequency domain by employing Fourier transform method and Schapery model First to assure the validation of the model, the results are compared with experimental results. Parametric studies such as the effects of number of subcells, fibers volume fraction (FVF) and aspect ratio, matrix/fiber link strength factor and interphase loss factor on the nanocomposite dynamic properties are investigated.. Obtained results reveal that the presented method has acceptable speed and accuracy. Moreover fiber aspect ratio and FVF increasing leads to decrease the nanocomposite hysteresis loop area, subsequently its damping capacity reduces. Interphase also contains considerable effects on the nanocomposite dynamic properties, so its modeling has a great importance.
Polymer Nanocomposites
Damping capacity
Micromechanics
2016
11
01
257
266
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1524-en.pdf
793-8310
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Thermo-elastic analysis of functionally graded nanocomposite cylinders reinforced by carbon nanotube by a mesh-free method
Mehrdad
Foroutan
Mohammad Sajad
Khodayari
In this paper, thermo-elastic analysis of functionally graded nanocomposite hollow cylinders reinforced by single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) subjected to a thermal load was carried out by a mesh-free method. It is assumed that the functionally graded nanocomposite hollow cylinder reinforced by carbon nanotube with finite length is simply supported. A uniform and three kinds of functionally graded (FG) distributions of carbon nanotubes in the radial direction of cylinder are considered. Nanocomposite mechanical properties are estimated by micro mechanical generalized rule mixture model. Applying the virtual work principle, the governing equations are obtained and are discretized by the mesh-free method. In the mesh-free analysis, moving least squares (MLSs) shape functions are used for approximation of displacement field. The transformation method was used for the imposition of essential boundary conditions. Using finite difference method, temperature distribution was obtained by solving the thermal equation. To validate, the results of this analysis were compared with previous published works and a good agreement was seen between them. Then the effects of various parameters, such as the kind of distribution and the volume fractions of carbon nanotubes and the different geometrical parameter, on the components of stress are studied.
Mesh-free method
Functionally graded nanocomposite
Thermo-elastic analysis
Single walled carbon nanotube
2016
11
01
267
276
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-8310-en.pdf
793-5851
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Inverse Design of Radiant Enclosures with Internal Source Distribution and Diffuse-nongray Design Surface
Shahrzad
Mirzaie
Seyed Masoud
Hoseini Sarvari
In this paper, inverse design to determine unknown heat source distribution in a radiant enclosure using an optimization method is investigated to produce desired emissive power and heat flux profiles on a diffuse-nongray design surface of a two-dimensional radiant enclosure. The medium of enclosure is emitting-absorbing, and the design surface's emissivity is assumed to be varied with respect to wavelength. Regarding diffuse-nongray design surface, the variation of emissivity with respect to the wavelength is approximated by considering a set of nongray bands with constant emissivity and then the radiative transfer equation is solved by the discrete ordinates method for each band. The total heat flux on each surface element of the design surface is approximated by a summation over the contribution of nongray bands. The conjugate gradient method is used to minimize an objective function, expressed by the sum of square residuals between estimated and desired heat fluxes over the design surface. The sensitivity problem is approximated by differentiation of the radiative transfer equation with respect to the unknown variables. The performance of the present method is evaluated by comparing the results with those obtained by considering a diffuse-gray design surface. The results show that the heat source distribution is well recovered over the heat flux specified design surface in an appropriate range of accuracy.
Inverse Design
Diffuse-nongray design surface
Emitting-absorbing medium
Discrete ordinates method
2016
11
01
277
286
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-5851-en.pdf
793-9366
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Embedding of internal fluid pressure investigation in mandrel through tube rotary draw bending of thin-walled tubes with critical bend radius
Jaber
Soleimani
Majid
Elyasi
Morteza
Hosseinzadeh
Nowadays, thin-walled tube bending (D/t≥20, D-tube diameter and t-tube thickness) in the critical bend ratio (R/D≤2, R bend radius) is a widely used manufacturing process in the aerospace industry, automotive, and other industries. During tube bending, considerable cross-sectional distortion and thickness variation occurs. The thickness increases at the intrados and reduces at the extrados. Also in some cases, when the bend die radius is small, wrinkling occurs at the intrados. In the industry, the mandrel is used to eliminate wrinkling and reduce cross-sectional distortion, which the choice of the mandrel depends on, tube material, bending angle, radius tube and bending radius. However, in the case of a close bend die radius, using the mandrel avoided. Because the mandrel, in addition to the cost of the process, the thinning of the wall increases at the extrados and this is undesirable in the manufacturing operation. So, in the present study regarding to development of tube hydroforming, internal fluid pressure is used instead of the mandrel. Therefore, the purpose of the feasibility study, observation and analysis of the formation of tube bending process, the tube rotary draw bending process with two of the mandrel and the internal fluid pressure is simulated by software ABAQUS.
Rotary draw bending
Mandrel
Internal fluid pressure
Finite element simulation
2016
11
01
287
297
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-9366-en.pdf
793-6668
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Development and Calibration of 3D Constitutive Equations for Nonlinear Passive Multi-Axial Finite Deformations of Skeletal Muscles
Sanaz
Saadatmand Hashemi
Masoud
Asgari
Skeletal muscles simulation remains a controversial topic as a result of its complex anatomical structure and mechanical characteristics such as nonlinear material properties and loading conditions. Most of the current models in the literature for describing the constitutive equations of skeletal muscles are based on Hill's one-dimensional, three element model. In this paper a 3D constitutive model which is based on the hyper elastic behavior of skeletal muscle and energy function has been presented. By using the derivatives of such energy function for defining the Second Piola and Cauchy stresses, we able to describe the inactive behavior of skeleton muscles. The applied constitutive equations are an efficient generalization of Hamphury's model for the inactive behavior of skeletal muscle. In this paper using a 3D model, different modes of deformations of skeletal muscle such as simple tension, biaxial and shear tests has been investigated and material properties constants for each modes of deformation has been optimized by Genetic algorithm. Finally the results of the model simulations of each mode are compared with those obtained from experimental tests. Also, the model results are compared with the ones from two well- known hyper elastic Ogden and Mooney-Rivilin models in order to show the priority of the new developed 3D model to those aforementioned models has been shown.
3D Constitutive Model
Passive Hyperelastic Behavior
Multi-axial Test
Skeletal muscles
2016
11
01
298
306
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-6668-en.pdf
793-1591
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
A Relation for Specific Impulse versus Back Pressure Changes and Optimum Conical Nozzle Expansion Ratio Algorithm
Vahid
Rezaei
Mohammadsaleh
Abdollahpour
Amir
Mardani
The main objective of utilizing nozzles is to convert the chemical energy to kinetic energy producing thrust. Wide variety of parameters make significant impact on nozzle performance; one of which produces significant effect is back pressure or ambient pressure. Basically, a nozzle designed for a specific back pressure does not work properly when the engine is ascending. Consequently, designing of nozzles needs knowledge of full effect of back pressure on engine performance. In this study, numerical simulation of three solid propellant nozzles have been conducted in several flight conditions. In other words, simulations have done in some ambient pressures which represents specific flight altitudes. Numerical modeling has been conducted aiding commercial code FLUENT. k-ϵ RNG turbulence model has been used for calculating turbulence interactions with the flow. Mass flow rate, chemical species, and chamber temperature have been used as the inlet boundary conditions based on engine specifications. Numerical results show a reasonable accuracy in comparison with experimental measurements. Estimating nozzle thrust level as a function of altitude increment is the primary goal of this study. Furthermore, with the aid of this relation and a MATLAB code for computing average specific impulse, optimum expansion ratio can be achieved based on a specified mission.
Specific Impulse
Optimum Expansion Ratio
Back Pressure
2016
11
01
307
317
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1591-en.pdf
793-9714
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Optimization of an FG cylindrical shell under hydro-mechanic and moving radial load employing imperialist competitive algorithm
Farid
Vakil-Tahami
Mohammad Reza
Khoshravan
Arash
Moahammad Alizadeh Fard
The main objective of this research is to employ Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) to determine the optimum condition for an FG cylindrical shell with outer piezoelectric layer. Design parameters in this problem are thickness and volume fraction of the material. The shell is subjected to outer radial moving load and internal pressurized fluid. To formulate the problem, First Order Shear Deformation theory and Maxwell’s equation have been combined to develop governing equations and by solving these equations using analytical-numerical methods, the dynamic deformation has been obtained. Then, by adopting displacement-strain and stress-strain relationships, distribution of the dynamic stresses within the shell has been calculated. Due to the moving of the external load, the use of dynamic analysis is necessary so that the dynamic and transient response is significant comparing with the static one. To validate the dynamic analysis, the results are compared with those provided in the literature based on other solution methods or experimental measurements. Finally, a computer code has been developed to link the dynamic solution method with the optimization algorithm based on ICA to obtain the optimum values of the design parameters. The major advantage of this method is using control points along the thickness to define volume fraction rather than using predefined functions which usually impose unnecessary restriction. The volume fraction between these control points is obtained by Hermite interpolation method. The results show the efficiency of the method and its major strength which is the flexibility and higher convergence rate to determine the optimum configuration.
Imperialist Competitive Algorithm
Cylindrical shell
Functionally Graded Materials
Moving Load
Control Point Method
2016
11
01
318
328
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-9714-en.pdf
793-9576
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Experimental and Finite Element Investigation of Liquid Impact Forming for Thin-walled Aluminium AA6063 Tubes
Javad
Shahbazi Karami
Gholamhasan
Payghaneh
Davood
Nourbakhsh
Kian
Tafazoli Aghvami
Manufacturing in as short time as possible, with highest quality and at minimal cost, is one of the key factors in industry. As a result, researchers are seeking new methods and technologies to meet such requirements. Liquid impact forming is one of such methods which has received wide currency especially in automotive and aerospace industries. In this method, which is considered as one of tubular hydroforming processes, forming is achieved by using liquid pressure. In this paper, liquid impact forming process was investigated experimentally and numerically for a thin-walled aluminium tube. In experimental part, a die was designed and manufactured to transform the cross section of the aluminium tube into a polygon which at the end of the process changes the cylindrical shape of the tube to a profile almost similar to a trapezoid. Results showed that a die in the form of matrix molding is not suitable for this type of geometry in such a process while using another die which consisted of three parts resulted in a satisfactory forming. Simulation of this process was further implemented using finite element method and results relating to Von Mises stress distribution, displacement, strain energy, internal energy, thickness variation and the force required to implement the process were obtained. Displacement distribution in different regions indicated that no wrinkling occurred in the sample. Comparison between simulation and experimental results indicated that they were in good agreement.
Tubular hydroforming
Liquid impact forming
Finite element simulation
2016
11
01
329
338
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-9576-en.pdf
793-3792
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Design and fabrication of a robotic fish with flexible tail and controlling its movement using Fuzzy Logic Controller
Ali
Selk Ghafari
Kasra
Dariani Tabrizi
Said
Hosseini
Ali
Meghdari
In this paper design, fabrication and control of a robotic fish with flexible tail was presented. At first, the short introduction of the robotic fish and their common control algorithms were reviewed. At the next step, the proposed mechanism of the robotic fish and its design procedure of the mechanical and electrical subsystems were explained. Mimic of the proposed robot was inspired from the Rainbow trout. The mechanical structure of the robotic fish consists of a body and a flexible tail. Oscillatory actuation of the tail was carried out utilizing a servomotor which was manipulated by pulse width modulation signal. The electrical subsystem of the proposed robot containing the electrical boards, electronic circuits, and a microcontroller are installed on the Aluminum platform which is locating in a sealed case. The flexible tail is attached to the end-side of the sealed case, and the actuating force is transferred to the tail utilizing pulley and cable mechanism. Since the dynamics of the system under investigation is nonlinear, a fuzzy logic controller is proposed to control the movement of the robot for goal seeking purpose. The closed loop simulation of the system was carried using MATLAB software. In addition, experimental investigation of the robotic fish was performed in the laboratory.
Robotic Fish
Fuzzy Logic Controller
Flexible Tail
2016
11
01
339
346
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-3792-en.pdf
793-9305
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Experimental and numerical study on the collapse behavior of double walled tubes reinforced with inside ribs under dynamic axial loading
Sajad
Pirmohammad
Hamid
Nikkhah
Sobhan
Esmaeili
Thin-walled structures are frequently used as energy absorbers in automotive, railway and aviation industries. This paper deals with the collapse and energy absorption behavior of thin-walled structures under dynamic axial loading Numerical modeling was performed using finite element code LS-DYNA. In order to validate the results of finite element analyses, a square tube was collapsed using universal test machine. This tube was then simulated in LS-DYNA, and the results with those of experiments were compared. There was a good consistency between the numerical and experimental results. The tubes with different cross-sections namely square, hexagonal and octagonal shapes reinforced with inside ribs as well as with different scales (ratio of sectional side length of the inner tube to that of outer tube) 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 were simulated in LS-DYNA. To determine the suitable cross-section in terms of crashworthiness, multi-criteria decision making method known as Technique of Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was employed. The results demonstrated that the double walled tube with octagonal cross-section possessing the scale between 0.25 and 0.5 had the best crashworthiness behavior. To find the optimum values of scale and wall-thickness, response surface method (RSM) and D-optimal criterion using design of experiments (DOE) were utilized Moreover, the effect of number of inside ribs (4 and 8) on the capability of absorbing energy was also investigated and the octagonal tube with 4 inside ribs was selected as an optimal tube with lower maximum impact force.
Collapse behavior
energy absorption
Axial loading
Double walled tubes
multi-objective optimization
2016
11
01
347
358
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-9305-en.pdf
793-10555
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Molecular dynamics simulation of the effects of the carbon nanotube length on the nanofluidic energy absorption system
Sayed Hossein
Ganjiani
Alireza
Hossein Nezhad
In this work the effect of carbon nanotube length on the nanofluidic energy absorption system is investigated by using molecular dynamic simulation. For this purpose, four rigid armchair carbon nanotubes (8,8), (10,10), (12,12) and (14,14), and six lengths (5.0 nm, 6.0 nm, 7.0 nm, 8.0 nm, 9.0 nm and 10.0 nm ) for each one are studied. Results of simulations show that the surface of carbon nanotube is frictionless in all length and diameters, causing water molecules defiltrated from carbon nanotubes after applying the loading-unloading cycle on the system. Contact angle which represents hydrophobic intensity of carbon nanotube is decreased averagely 4 and 2 % by increasing length and diameter of carbon nanotube, respectively; therefore, infiltration pressure of water molecules through carbon nanotube is decreased averagely 30 and 15 %, respectively. Moreover, the mass and size of carbon nanotube increase by increasing length and diameter of carbon nanotube, leading to the reduction of energy absorption density and efficiency. Also, density of water molecules in carbon nanotube unlike the bulk of liquid phase is non uniform, decreases in the first and second shells, and increases along the distance between them by increasing length of carbon nanotube.
Infiltration pressure
Surface tension
Contact angle
Energy conversion
2016
11
01
359
365
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-10555-en.pdf
793-3987
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Study on Machining of Inconel 718 Super Alloy and Effective Process Parameters Using Design of Experiment Method
Majid
Khodadadi
Hossein
Amirabadi
S. M. Hossein
Seyedkashi
Inconel alloys are a family of nickel-based superalloys that consist of a wide range of compositions and properties. Inconel 718 is one of superalloys used in the aerospace industry due to its good mechanical properties; such as high corrosion and creep resistance at high temperatures. Despite these advantages, Inconel 718 is among the most difficult materials to be machined. In this paper, a finite element model for orthogonal machining of Inconel 718 was developed in order to investigate the effective parameters on the force, temperature and chip morphology. The plastic behavior of material was simulated with Johnson-cook material model, and constant shear friction factor (m) is used to model the friction between chip and tool interface. Then, the simulation results were compared with experimental values with which a good agreement was found between them. After validating the simulation results, the effect of coefficient friction, cutting speed and rake angle, on the cutting edge temperature, force on the tool and chip morphology was achieved by using design of experiments (DOE) method. According to the results, feedrate (with 30% contribution) and friction coefficient (with 19% contribution) have the greatest impact on the force on the tool. Rake angle (with 31% contribution), cutting speed (with 21% contribution) and feedrate (with 20% contribution) are the most effective parameters on the cutting edge temperature. The friction coefficient and feedrate (both with 25% contribution) have the greatest impact on the chip geometry.
Orthogonal cutting
Inconel 718
Chip morphology
Design of experiment
2016
11
01
366
374
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-3987-en.pdf
793-3105
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Effect of Flexible-Body Assembly Errors on Appearance Quality of Automotive Bodies
Seyed Ali
Hashemian
Behnam
Moetakef
The appearance quality of automotive bodies is among the features which are, in recent years, significantly taken into consideration by designers throughout the world. Automotive bodies are, to a great extent, constructed from flexible sheet metal components and would deform and distorted easily by even a slight assembly force. Therefore, errors due to manufacture and assembly processes of automotive bodies lead to major deviation from the ideal product and finally affect the appearance quality and cosmetic features of the vehicle. The effect of these errors, which are commonly arisen by dimensional, geometric or assembly tolerance of the components, can be examined by tolerance analysis. As one of the key quality characteristics in vehicle design, this paper evaluates the appearance quality of automotive bodies as a function of assembly derived errors. In the proposed methodology, by means of the nonlinear finite element analysis and by presenting the surface interrogation techniques, a comprehensive approach of quality appearance evaluation of vehicles is developed. The approach is validated by a vehicle example and the results show a great consistence with practical data obtained from the production line.
Tolerance Analysis
Flexible Sheet Metal Assemblies
Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis
Quality Appearance Evaluation
2016
11
01
375
386
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-3105-en.pdf
793-2180
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Dynamics analysis of pipe conveying fluid with axial and rotational motion
Hadi
Heydari
Mohamad-Reza
Ghazavi
Asghar
Najafi
Dynamics analysis of the rotational axially moving pipe conveying fluid under simply supported condition investigated in this research. The pipe assumed as Euler Bernoulli beam. The gyroscopic force and mass eccentricity were considered in the research. Equations of motion are derived using Hamilton’s principle, resulting in two partial differential equations for the transverse motions. The non-dimensional equations were discretized via Galerkin’ method and were solved using Rung Kutta method (order 15s). The frequency response curve obtained in terms of non-dimensional rotational speed. The bifurcation diagrams are represented in the case that the non-dimensional fluid speed, non-dimensional axial speed and non-dimensional rotational speed were respectively varied and the dynamical behavior is numerically identified based on the Poincare' portrait. Numerical simulations indicated that the system response increases by increasing non-dimensional axial speed of the pipe, non-dimensional fluid speed and non-dimensional rotational speed of the pipe and then decreases after passing critical area. The system is unstable at critical point associated with non-dimensional axial speed. Poincare portrait indicates periodic motion in transverse vibrations of the pipe at some points of control parameters. Phase portrait and FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) diagrams were used for validation of the results.
Galerkin’ Method
Critical Speed
Control Parameter
Bifurcation Diagram
Poincare Portrait
2016
11
01
387
393
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-2180-en.pdf
793-6239
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Experimental investigation on the effect of friction stir welding process parameters in dissimilar joining of AA2024-T351 and AA6061-T6 aluminum alloys
Mohammad Mehdi
Moradi
Hamed
Jamshidi Aval
Roohollah
Jamaati
In this research, the friction-stir welding (FSW) process was used for butt joining of AA2024-T351 and AA6061-T6 dissimilar alloys. Welding was carried out using a tool with frustum of pyramid pin. The effects of rotational and linear speeds of the tool on microstructure, macrostructure, and mechanical properties of joints were examined. The AA2024 alloy was located in the advancing side due to higher flow stress at higher temperature than the AA6061 alloy, which was located in the retreating side. Macro analysis showed that with a rotational to linear speed ratio of higher than 31.25 revolutions per millimeter the transverse joint section demonstrated tunnel hole defect. With an increase in heat input material flow on different depth levels of joint became more homogenous and the AA2024 alloy’s amount in the stir zone increased. Moreover, with rotational to linear speed ratio of higher than 40 revolutions per millimeter, the effect of deformation rate was dominant, whereas with lower ratios the effect of temperature on grain size in the stir zone was dominant. Application of offset to the tool during welding in the retreating side led to improvement of flow of materials in the stir zone and an increase in friction stir joint strength.
Friction Stir Welding
Aluminum alloy
Material flow
Mechanical Properties
2016
11
01
394
402
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-6239-en.pdf
793-1966
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
A novel real-time singularity avoidance approach for manual guidance of industrial robots
Ali
Mousavi Mohammadi
Alireza
Akbarzadeh Tootoonchi
In this paper, online manual guidance of industrial robots using impedance control with singularity avoidance is studied. In this method, operator enters the robot workspace, physically holds the end-effector equipped with force sensor and manually guides the robot. In doing so, the operator generates the desired trajectory for applications like welding or painting. Robot singular configuration is possible during the process which makes it unsafe due to unexpected high velocity robot joints and the physical human-robot interaction. Therefore, real-time identification of singularity position and orientation must be evaluated during trajectory generation. The use of manipulability ellipsoid is suggested as a simple method for the singularity identification. By combining the manipulability ellipsoid and impedance control, a simple and new approach is proposed to warn operator before reaching singularity. Based on the proposed approach, effect of opposite force is exerted on the human hand in the predefined distance to singularity. Real-time implementation is the main advantage of the proposed approach because it keeps robot away from reaching singularity. Real-time experiments are performed using a SCARA robot. In the first experiment, the operator stops the trajectory generation process when an opposite force is produced. In the second experiment, the operator insists on entering the singular points. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach in dealing with singularity problem during the trajectory generation by an operator for industrial robots.
Manual Guidance
Industrial Robots
Trajectory Generation
Impedance Control
Manipulability Ellipsoid
2016
11
01
403
413
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-1966-en.pdf
793-8957
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Vibration of axially moving two-layer graphene nonoribbon incorporating interlayer shear effect.
Farshad
Yadegari
Ardeshir
Karami mohammadi
Inimitable properties of graphene sheets enable a variety of applications such as axially moving nanodevices. Axial velocity affects dynamical response of systems. In this study linear vibration of an axially moving two-layer graphene nonoribbon with interlayer shear effect is proposed using nonlocal elasticity theory. Based on this theory stress at a point is a function of strain at all other points of the body. Euler-Bernoulli theory is used to model the system due to nanoribbon thickness and length. It is assumed that the layers have the same transverse displacement and curvature and there is no transverse separation between layers surfaces. A shear modulus is imported in the potential energy expression in order to consider the interlayer shear effect due to weak Van der Waals forces. Governing equations are obtained using Hamilton’s principle and are solved by Galerkin approach. Results for clamped-free boundary conditions are presented and compared to other available studies. Results for pinned-pinned boundary conditions are presented and it is observed that increasing axial velocity causes divergence and flutter instabilities in the system. Effects of different shear modulus and nonlocal parameter on critical speeds are also proposed.
Vibration
Graphene nonoribbon
Axially moving
Nonlocal theory
Instability
2016
11
01
414
420
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-8957-en.pdf
793-614
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Optimal Control of Non-holonomic Wheeled Mobile Robot Using Linear Quadratic Gaussian Controller
Payam
Nourizadeh
Aghil
Yousefi Koma
Moosa
Ayati
In this paper, designing optimal linear controller for non-holonomic wheeled mobile robots based on Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller is considered. Parameters of the governing kinematics equation of motion are derived based on system identification techniques by using real experimental data. The autoregressive moving average-exogenous input (ARMAX) models are taken into account. The least square (LS) algorithm is utilized to estimate the parameters of the model. Thereafter, optimal model order and the performance of the model are determined using several statistical analyses. Also, the recursive LS (RLS) with forgetting factor is employed to demonstrate the convergence of the model parameters. Verification of discrete linear model implies the possibility of using the linear controllers. Therefore, the optimal LQG controller for wheeled mobile robots is designed to track the reference trajectory. The Kalman observer is used to estimate un-measurable states of the robot. Furthermore, the optimal linear control together with system identification techniques yields simpler controller than nonlinear controllers. Designed controller and verified model are simulated using the MATLAB-Simulink software. Results show the effectiveness of the controller in tracking the desired reference trajectory.
Mobile Robot
System identification
Recursive least square
LQG controller
Kalman observer
2016
11
01
421
428
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-614-en.pdf
793-10493
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Fault estimation observer with unmatched unknown inputs for linear systems
Mojtaba
Hashemi
Ali
Kamali Eigoli
Mahyar
Naraghi
An algebraic method based on unknown input observer for fault estimation in linear time invariant system with unknown input is implementable if matching condition is satisfied. Matching condition limits practical application of these methods. In this article, a method is proposed for fault estimation which need not to satisfy matching condition. Unlike classical methods, the provided method doesn’t require for auxiliary output for fault estimation. In first step, the unknown input is divided in two parts: the matched and the unmatched unknown inputs. Assuming that there exist a dynamic model for the unmatched part, new augmented system is constructed. The augmented system has revealed as a new system with matched unknown input. Then, the effect of matched unknown input has perfectly removed from observer estimation using the traditional unknown input decoupling strategy. In next step, the full order observer is designed for the augmented system. A fast adaptive law is employed for the fault estimation. Lyapunov stability condition of state and fault estimation is derived by linear matrix inequality(LMI) criteria. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown via numerical simulation on a flexible joint example.
unmatched unknown input
fault estimation
fast adaptive observer
2016
11
01
429
436
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-10493-en.pdf
793-6249
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Experimental Study of the Effect of Environmental Parameters on a Solar Parabolic Water Heater Efficiency using Neural Network in Sirjan
Farnaz
Jamadi
In this study, after fabricating a solar parabolic water heater, an efficient model is suggested to predict the efficiency of the solar water heater system (SWHS). Artificial neural networks (ANN) can create logical relations among the input parameters and target(s). As efficiency is trained a function of the input parameters, when conditions are desirable to measure the data, a network-trained function can be used to predict the efficiency of the solar system. The used data for the neural network analysis were measured by using experiments on a parabolic trough collector, during four days in June. Variables such as solar radiation, ambient temperature and the output fluid temperature of the collector were considered as input parameters and the efficiency of the solar parabolic water heater was used as the output neural network. Different ANN models are presented based on the various input parameters and neurons. The ANN6 model with a 4-10-1 structure, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.0061 and regression coefficient for train data (Rtrain) of 0.99995, is the most accurate among the presented models. By increasing the input parameters, the RMSE decreases and accuracy of the models increases. When experimental tests are not impossible in similar conditions, the presented model can help researchers predict the efficiency of studied SWHS by saving time and costs.
Solar water heater system
Efficiency
Neural Network
Parabolic trough collector
Solar radiation
2016
11
01
437
448
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-6249-en.pdf
793-801
2018-08-21
10.1002
Modares Mechanical Engineering
IQBQ
1027-5940
2476-6909
2016
16
9
Implementation of parallel processing on GPU for fluid flow simulation using Lattice Boltzmann method and Smoothed Profile method
Behnam
Khalili
Mohammad
Rahnama
Saeed
Jafari
Ebrahim
Jahanshahi Javaran
Investigation of fluid-solid interaction has been studied as an introduction to simulate a wide range of engineering problems such as fluidized beds, sediment transportation and catalyst inks in fuel cells. An efficient method for performing such simulations is a combination of Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and Smoothed Profile Method (SPM). In addition, the operations in the SPM are local; it can be easily programmed for parallel processing. In this approach, the flow is computed on fixed Eulerian grids which are also used for the particles. Owing to the use of the same grids for simulation of fluid flow and particles, this method is highly efficient for purpose of parallel processing by means of GPU. In this study, a combination of Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and Smoothed Profile method has been implemented in parallel processing on GPU. For validation purpose, the fluid flow within a channel was investigated. Results suggest that computational time can be reduced up to 80 times by means of GPU.Then, drag force exerted on a sphere in fluid flow and the sedimentation of one sphere in a quiescent fluid were studied. Results show that performance of GPU can be increased up to 6.5 million fluid nods per second by using this method.
Lattice Boltzmann Method
Smoothed Profile method
Parallel Processing
Fluid- solid interaction
2016
11
01
449
458
http://journals.modares.ac.ir/article-15-801-en.pdf