Volume 20, Issue 4 (April 2020)                   Modares Mechanical Engineering 2020, 20(4): 1063-1077 | Back to browse issues page

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1- , moradi@malayeru.ac.ir
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Additive manufacturing in the modern world is progressing significantly, resulting in special applications in engineering sciences, medicine, and art. When the MIT university mixed the concept of time in the 3D printing process, time was considered as the fourth dimension. By combining the fourth dimension, the time, the smart materials made of additive manufacturing are able to a reaction to the external motivations (heat, voice, impact, etc) within a specified time. In the 4D printing process, the material configuration will be converted to a converter that will be exposed to external motivation such as heat, water, chemicals, electrical current and magnetic energy. It is expected that in the future, this technology will be widely used, requiring the application of various engineering disciplines, including mechanical engineering, in the fabrication and production of objects, because the overall perspective of the 4-D printing process is to make intelligent materials that are optimized using computational challenges and empirical knowledge. In this article, after reviewing the 3D printing and introducing smart materials, the issue of 4D printing has been investigated using this material. The mechanism, challenges, applications, and future of 4D printing has been discussed.
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Article Type: Systematic Review | Subject: Build add-on
Received: 2018/12/30 | Accepted: 2019/08/24 | Published: 2020/04/17

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